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IELTS Practice Test 4

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Published on: 04 Jun 2019

Reading Practice Test 2

Answer Keys:

  • 1 formative logic
  • 2 (some) description
  • 3 poll tax
  • 4 increasing bureaucracy
  • 5 D
  • 6 B
  • 7 C
  • 8 E
  • 9 A
  • 10 son (of)
  • 11 deliberate modifications
  • 12 exact meaning
  • 13 vertical writing
  • 14 NOT GIVEN
  • 15 TRUE
  • 16 FALSE
  • 17 TRUE
  • 18 FALSE
  • 19 Self-selection
  • 20 Opinionated perspectives
  • 21 maximise (the)
  • 22 sufficiently trained
  • 23 introductions
  • 24 trust
  • 25 B
  • 26 C
  • 27 viii
  • 28 ii
  • 29 ix
  • 30 vii
  • 31 iv
  • 32 iii
  • 33 Chicxulub Crater
  • 34 company policy
  • 35 iridium
  • 36 widespread skeptocism
  • 37 mass extinction
  • 38 B
  • 39 C
  • 40 A

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Review & Explanations:

Section 1: Questions 1-13

Questions 1-4

Answer the questions.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

What aspect of family names should make us think more about them?

1

Originally, what was needed to distinguish two same first names?

2

What legislation began the process of using family names?

3

What made family names, in time, necessary?

4

  • 1 Answer: formative logic
  • Keywords in Questions

    Similar words in Passage

    Q1: What aspect of family names should make us think more about them?

     

    With respect to the apparently random family name, if one traces back far enough in time, there is inevitably a formative logic that warrants some reflection.

    Note:

    • According to the question, “What aspect of family names should make us think more about them?”  

    • From the passage, we can infer that “With respect to the apparently random family name, if one traces back far enough in time, there is inevitably a formative logic that warrants some reflection.” Which is a sentence support the writer’s ideal in the question.

    • The clue helps the reader to find the answer: “aspect of family names should make us think more about them” and “formative logic” which is aspect of family names. Therefore, the answer should be formative logic.

  • 2 Answer: (some) description
  • Keywords in Questions

    Similar words in Passage

    Q2: Originally, what was needed to distinguish two same first names?

    If another John did exist, one could simply add some description to the name: ‘John the carpenter’ versus ‘John near the hill’, and a third could be ‘John, Peter’s son’.

    Note:

    • From the passage, “what was needed to distinguish two same first names?”

    • There are many the same first names, so the best way to identify someone by “some description”. In this passage the writer give us some example about the person has the same name and use some description to distinguish the same names “‘John the carpenter’ versus ‘John near the hill’, and a third could be ‘John, Peter’s son’”. Therefore, the answer should be some description.

  • 3 Answer: poll tax
  • Keywords in Questions

    Similar words in Passage

    Q3: What legislation began the process of using family names?

    This was when the government introduced a poll tax, the administration of which required a list of the names of every adult in the kingdom.

    Note:

    • According to the question, we can infer thatWhat legislation began the process of using family names?”

    • From the passage we can know that the sentence “This was when the government introduced a poll tax, the administration of which required a list of the names of every adult in the kingdom” which has related the question. In this sentence the author give some information to explain for the question “when the government introduced a poll tax” at that time “legislation began the process of using family names”. Therefore, the answer should be poll tax.

  • 4 Answer: increasing bureaucracy
  • Keywords in Questions

    Similar words in Passage

    Q4: What made family names, in time, necessary?
     

    With such increasing bureaucracy, fixed and heritable family names would eventually become a necessity.

    Note:

    • From the connections stated above, we can infer that “What made family names, in time, necessary?

    • From the passage we can know that the sentence “With such increasing bureaucracy, fixed and heritable family names would eventually become a necessity” which has related the question. In this sentence the author give information “With such increasing bureaucracy, fixed and heritable family names would eventually become a necessity” which help the reader can understand and easily find the answer.

    • The keyword from the question is “necessary” as the same meaning with the keyword from the passage “necessity” which is that is needed for a purpose or a reason, so this keywords is one of clues to help the reader can find the answer.

    • The answer here should be increasing bureaucracy.

Questions 5-9

Questions 10-13

Complete the sentences.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

‘Mac’ in Scottish means ‘ 10 '

In order to be easier to write, foreign names often had 11

Spelling changes in names can make it hard to know their 12

The term ‘upper name’ is used because of Asia’s 13

  • 10 Answer: son (of)
  • Keywords in Questions

    Similar words in Passage

    Q10: ‘Mac’means ‘

    Finally, names often showed the relationships among families, whereson of Peter’ became Peter’s son”, in turn becoming “Peterson”.

    Note:

    • From the question  we can assume that  the writer show the reader the way to understand “names often showed the relationships among families”. In this situation the writer give illustration to demonstrate name with relationships among families “son of Peter’ became Peter’s son”. And in the question the author use another name “Mac” which is different name but it has the same function with “Peter”   

    •  Hence the answer is son (of)

  • 11 Answer: deliberate modifications
  • Keywords in Questions

    Similar words in Passage

    Q11: In order to be easier to write, foreign names often had

    This was either due to mispronunciation, which saw names such as Pfoersching become Pershing, or deliberate modifications to accommodate English pronunciation and spelling.

    Note:

    • From the connections stated above, the writer show the way in order to be easier to write “names such as Pfoersching become Pershing, or deliberate modifications to accommodate English pronunciation and spelling.” which is the right information related with question. and support for the sentence in the question.

    • The answer here should be deliberate modifications.

  • 12 Answer: exact meaning
  • Keywords in Questions

    Similar words in Passage

    Q12: Spelling changes in names can make it hard to know their 

    Old English spellings, for example, were often lost in favour of phonetic intelligibility, making the determination of exact meaning difficult.

    Note:

    • According to the passage, the writer show for the reader know how spelling changes in names can make it hard “were often lost in favour of phonetic intelligibility, making the determination of exact meaning difficult.” which is sentence support some information in the question.  

    • We have “hard” in the question has the same meaning with “difficult” in the passage which mean a difficult problem/choice/task/language.

    • The answer here should be exact meaning.

  • 13 Answer: vertical writing
  • Keywords in Questions

    Similar words in Passage

    Q13: The term ‘upper name’ is used because of Asia’s

     Since many of these cultures have vertical writing, what to the West is a ‘last name’ is in the East, an upper name’

    Note:

    • From the connections stated above, the writer show the reader the key word is “upper name” which appears in both the question and the passage. So we can find the answer from this sentence “Since many of these cultures have vertical writing, what to the West is a ‘last name’ is in the East, an “upper name” which support the writer’s ideal.

    • The answer here should be vertical writing.

Section 1

Reading Passage 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage One.

Family Names

Any specific study of words and language almost invariably has an obscure name, and that includes the study of people’s names themselves. This science is called anthroponomastics (anthropos being man, and onoma being name) but do not expect that word to be useful in your life. Yet all people possess names, and most possess several. With respect to the apparently random family name, if one traces back far enough in time, there is inevitably a formative logic that warrants some reflection. After all, that is the name people will carry their whole lives (name changes aside), and pass on to their descendants.

Considering early Britain, populations at that time lived in small farming hamlets, where they generally stayed their whole lives, and people had one name only. Being the only person named ‘John’ in the village allowed that single name to sufficiently distinguish that person from all others. If another John did exist, one could simply add some description to the name: ‘John the carpenter’ versus ‘John near the hill’, and a third could be ‘John, Peter’s son’. Such additions were mostly short-lived and not passed down to descendants. But of course, life was not destined to remain that simple.

With townships increasing in population, people becoming more mobile, and invading armies flowing to and fro, complications set in. In England, the process of adopting family names (or ‘surnames’ or ‘second names’) did not happen suddenly, but if one had to pick a fixed date, 1379 would be a good start. This was when the government introduced a poll tax, the administration of which required a list of the names of every adult in the kingdom. Suddenly, there were too many Johns to deal with. To resolve this issue, the later Additions Statute (1413) insisted that all names also come with the bearers’ occupation and place of residence. With such increasing bureaucracy, fixed and heritable family names would eventually become a necessity.

There were many methods by which these names were decided. The most obvious was to use that place of residence, although this method did come with the obvious problem that all residents of, say, Wickham, could not take the family name ‘Wickham’ without causing obvious confusion. Still, jumping to Italy, this did not prevent Leonardo da Vinci (from Vinci) becoming the town’s most famous export. Moving back to England, family names could also derive from personal beliefs (resulting in Mope, Christian, Godley, and others) or physical attributes, giving us Armstrong, Short, Brown, and others. Such names are often disguised by their original Gaelic derivation. Guilfoyle means ‘follower of (Saint) Paul’; Kennedy means ‘ugly head’.

Quite common also was to be named from the trade or profession carried out, resulting in names such as Smith, Butcher, and Carpenter. Many of these refer to professions long made redundant, such as Fletcher (arrow maker), Cooper (barrel maker), or Heyward (fence maintainer). Also common was to be named from geographic features, often ones near where the name-bearer lived. And so there is Hill, Bush, Underwood (‘under the wood’), Eastlake, Bridges, and many others. Finally, names often showed the relationships among families, where ‘son of Peter’ became ‘Peter’s son’, in turn becoming ‘Peterson’. Similarly, there is Johnson, Harrison, and Robertson. In Scots, ‘Mac’ was used, giving MacDonald, MacPherson, and others.

With the mixing of populations from different countries (especially in America), the original foreign names often suffered. This was either due to mispronunciation, which saw names such as Pfoersching become Pershing, or deliberate modifications to accommodate English pronunciation and spelling. Thus, Krankheit became Cronkite, and Wistinghausen became Westinghouse. Yet even the most English of family names is often historically knocked around a fair bit in terms of spelling and pronunciation before settling into its final form. Old English spellings, for example, were often lost in favour of phonetic intelligibility, making the determination of exact meaning difficult. .

All this study of family names might lead one to believe that using them is universal. Far from it, and the technical word for a single name only is a mononym. Parts of Africa, India, Central Asia, and Indonesia, as well as many indigenous or aboriginal groups use single names only. In the developed world, such names are usually stage names, reserved for celebrities, artists, singers, or film stars. The entertainment industry in Japan is replete with examples: Mana, Ayaka, and Ichiro, while Korea, China, and Hong Kong, have followed suit. Moving to the West, some will invent names (Bono, Sting, Prince), or just use family names (Liberace, Morrisey), or their first names (Shakira, Cher). Contrasting this, the musician Bjork uses a mononym in accordance with her own culture. As with all Icelanders, she has no family name.

A final point of interest is that in European and Western cultures, the family name is usually given after the first name (in both speaking and writing) — hence the terms ‘first’ and ‘last’ name. Contrasting this, in Asian cultures it is the other way round, reflecting the greater emphasis placed on family relationships. Since many of these cultures have vertical writing, what to the West is a ‘last name’ is in the East, an‘upper name’.

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