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Academic Word List for IELTS

What is the Academic Word List?

The AWL is a list of words which appear with high frequency in English-language academic texts.

Why should I learn it?

You will need to know this academic vocabulary if you want to study in an English-speaking college or university. In fact, because these words are so common, they are even useful to those who do not plan to go on to post-secondary study in English. These are words that you will frequently see in newspapers, magazines, and novels, and hear on television, movies or in conversation.

  • a 69
  • abandon
  • abstract
  • academy
  • acceptable
  • access
  • accessibility
  • acclaimed
  • accommodate
  • accompany
  • accordingly
  • accumulate
  • accurate
  • accustomed
  • achieve
  • acknowledge
  • acquire
  • adapt
  • adapted
  • adequate
  • adjacent
  • adjust
  • administrate
  • admittedly
  • adult
  • advocate
  • affect
  • aggregate
  • aid
  • albeit
  • allocate
  • alter
  • alternative
  • ambiguous
  • amend
  • analogy
  • analyse
  • annual
  • anomalies
  • anticipate
  • apparent
  • appeal
  • append
  • appreciate
  • approach
  • appropriate
  • approximate
  • approximately
  • arbitrary
  • aspect
  • assemble
  • assess
  • assign
  • assist
  • assistance
  • associate
  • assume
  • assure
  • astonishingly
  • attach
  • attain
  • attempt
  • attitude
  • attribute
  • author
  • authority
  • automate
  • available
  • avoidance
  • aware
  • b 16
  • backbone
  • behalf
  • behavioural
  • beneficial
  • benefit
  • bestow
  • beverages
  • bias
  • biased
  • bond
  • boost
  • breakthrough
  • brief
  • bulk
  • bygone
  • by-product
  • c 100
  • canvas
  • capable
  • capacity
  • casually
  • category
  • catering
  • cease
  • challenge
  • channel
  • charitable
  • chemical
  • circumstance
  • cite
  • civil
  • clarify
  • clause
  • closely
  • coherent
  • coincide
  • collapse
  • colleague
  • commence
  • comment
  • commission
  • commit
  • commitment
  • commodity
  • communicate
  • community
  • companionship
  • compatible
  • compensate
  • competitive
  • compile
  • complement
  • complex
  • component
  • compound
  • comprehensive
  • comprise
  • compromise
  • compute
  • conceive
  • concentrate
  • concept
  • conclude
  • concrete
  • concurrent
  • conduct
  • confer
  • confine
  • confirm
  • conflict
  • conform
  • consent
  • consequent
  • consequently
  • considerable
  • consist
  • consistency
  • consistently
  • constant
  • constitute
  • constrain
  • constraints
  • construct
  • consult
  • consume
  • consumption
  • contact
  • context
  • contract
  • contradict
  • contrary
  • contrast
  • contribute
  • controversial
  • controversy
  • convene
  • converse
  • convert
  • convey
  • convince
  • cooperate
  • coordinate
  • core
  • corporate
  • correspond
  • counterpart
  • couple
  • coverages
  • create
  • credible
  • credit
  • crisis
  • criteria
  • crucial
  • culture
  • currency
  • cycle
  • d 55
  • debate
  • decade
  • deceptively
  • decline
  • decrease
  • dedicated
  • deduce
  • deem
  • define
  • definite
  • deforestation
  • demanding
  • demonstrate
  • denote
  • deny
  • depress
  • derive
  • design
  • desirable
  • desperate
  • despite
  • detect
  • detrimental
  • deviate
  • device
  • devote
  • differentiate
  • dimension
  • diminish
  • discrete
  • discriminate
  • displace
  • display
  • dispose
  • distinct
  • distinguish
  • distort
  • distribute
  • disturbing
  • diverse
  • diversity
  • document
  • domain
  • domestic
  • dominant
  • dominate
  • doubtful
  • downward
  • draft
  • drama
  • dramatic
  • dramatically
  • drawback
  • duration
  • dynamic
  • e 62
  • ease
  • economy
  • edit
  • elegantly
  • element
  • eliminate
  • embark
  • emerge
  • emerged
  • emphasis
  • empirical
  • enable
  • encounter
  • energy
  • enforce
  • enhance
  • enhancement
  • enormous
  • enquire
  • ensure
  • enthusiasm
  • enthusiastically
  • entity
  • environment
  • equate
  • equip
  • equivalent
  • erode
  • error
  • essence
  • establish
  • estate
  • estimate
  • ethic
  • ethical
  • ethically
  • ethnic
  • evaluate
  • evasion
  • eventual
  • eventually
  • evidence
  • evident
  • evolve
  • exceed
  • excessively
  • exclude
  • exclusively
  • exhibit
  • existence
  • expand
  • experimental
  • expert
  • expertise
  • explicit
  • exploit
  • export
  • expose
  • exposed
  • external
  • extract
  • extremely
  • f 32
  • facilitate
  • factor
  • fast-paced
  • favorable
  • favourable
  • feasible
  • feature
  • federal
  • figure
  • file
  • final
  • finance
  • finite
  • firmly
  • flexible
  • fluctuate
  • fluctuating
  • focus
  • format
  • formula
  • forthcoming
  • foundation
  • fractal
  • framework
  • fraught
  • frequent
  • frequently
  • frustration
  • function
  • fund
  • fundamental
  • furthermore
  • g 10
  • gender
  • generate
  • generation
  • globe
  • grade
  • gradually
  • grant
  • grasp
  • guarantee
  • guideline
  • h 8
  • harness
  • hence
  • heroic
  • hierarchy
  • highlight
  • historically
  • household
  • hypothesis
  • i 75
  • identical
  • identify
  • ideology
  • ignorant
  • illiteracy
  • illustrate
  • image
  • immense
  • immigrate
  • impact
  • impart
  • implant
  • implement
  • implicate
  • implicit
  • imply
  • impose
  • incentive
  • incidence
  • incline
  • income
  • incorporate
  • increase
  • increasingly
  • incredibly
  • index
  • indicate
  • individual
  • individuality
  • induce
  • inequality
  • inevitable
  • inevitably
  • infectious
  • infer
  • infrastructure
  • inhabit
  • inherent
  • inhibit
  • initial
  • initially
  • initiate
  • initiated
  • injure
  • innovate
  • insert
  • insight
  • inspect
  • instance
  • institute
  • institution
  • instruct
  • insuperable
  • integral
  • integrate
  • integrity
  • intellectual
  • intelligent
  • intense
  • interact
  • intermediate
  • internal
  • interpret
  • interval
  • intervene
  • intervention
  • intrinsic
  • invest
  • investigate
  • invoke
  • involve
  • irresistible
  • irrespective
  • isolate
  • issue
  • j 2
  • journal
  • justify
  • l 17
  • labour
  • layer
  • lecture
  • legal
  • legislate
  • legitimate
  • levy
  • liability
  • liberal
  • licence
  • likelihood
  • likely
  • likewise
  • literate
  • locate
  • logic
  • lucrative
  • m 36
  • magnificent
  • maintain
  • major
  • majority
  • mandatory
  • manipulate
  • manual
  • margin
  • marginal
  • maternal
  • mature
  • maximise
  • mechanism
  • media
  • mediate
  • medical
  • medium
  • mental
  • mentally
  • method
  • migrate
  • military
  • minimal
  • minimise
  • minimum
  • ministry
  • minor
  • mobility
  • mode
  • moderately
  • modify
  • monitor
  • motivated
  • motive
  • mutual
  • myriad
  • n 13
  • necessities
  • necessity
  • negate
  • neglected
  • network
  • neutral
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • norm
  • normal
  • notion
  • notwithstanding
  • nuclear
  • o 20
  • objective
  • obstacles
  • obtain
  • obtainable
  • obvious
  • obviously
  • occupy
  • occur
  • odd
  • offset
  • ongoing
  • optimism
  • option
  • orient
  • orientation
  • ought
  • outcome
  • overall
  • overlap
  • overseas
  • p 72
  • panel
  • paradigm
  • paragraph
  • parallel
  • parameter
  • participate
  • partner
  • passive
  • patently
  • perceive
  • perceived
  • percent
  • period
  • persist
  • perspective
  • phase
  • phenomenon
  • philosophically
  • philosophy
  • physical
  • pitfalls
  • pleasurable
  • policy
  • popularity
  • portfolio
  • portion
  • pose
  • positive
  • positively
  • potential
  • practitioner
  • precede
  • precise
  • predict
  • predictable
  • predominant
  • preliminary
  • presume
  • prevail
  • prevalent
  • previous
  • primary
  • prime
  • principal
  • principle
  • prior
  • priority
  • privilege
  • probable
  • proceed
  • process
  • productivity
  • professional
  • proficiency
  • profitable
  • prohibit
  • prohibitively
  • project
  • projection
  • proliferation
  • promote
  • proportion
  • proportionally
  • proportions
  • prospect
  • protocol
  • psychology
  • publication
  • publish
  • purchase
  • pursue
  • pursuit
  • q 2
  • qualitative
  • quote
  • r 56
  • radical
  • radically
  • random
  • range
  • ratio
  • rational
  • react
  • reasonable
  • reckon
  • recover
  • refine
  • refinery
  • reflect
  • regime
  • region
  • register
  • regularly
  • regulate
  • reinforce
  • reinforcement
  • reject
  • relatively
  • relax
  • release
  • relevant
  • reluctance
  • reluctant
  • rely
  • remarkable
  • remove
  • rendering
  • reproduction
  • require
  • research
  • resemble
  • reside
  • resolve
  • resource
  • respond
  • responsible
  • restore
  • restrain
  • restrict
  • restricted
  • retain
  • reveal
  • revenue
  • reverse
  • revise
  • revolution
  • rigid
  • ritual
  • role
  • roughly
  • route
  • routine
  • s 62
  • savvy
  • scale
  • scenario
  • schedule
  • scheme
  • scope
  • sector
  • secure
  • seek
  • select
  • sequence
  • series
  • shift
  • significance
  • significant
  • similar
  • simulate
  • simultaneously
  • skeptical
  • slightly
  • so-called
  • sole
  • somewhat
  • source
  • specific
  • specifically
  • specify
  • spectacular
  • sphere
  • stabilize
  • stable
  • standardise
  • statistic
  • stimulate
  • straightforward
  • strategic
  • strategy
  • stress
  • structure
  • style
  • submit
  • subordinate
  • subsequent
  • subsidy
  • substantial
  • substitute
  • successor
  • sufficient
  • sufficiently
  • summary
  • supplement
  • supplementary
  • surge
  • surrounded
  • survey
  • survive
  • suspend
  • sustain
  • sustainable
  • sustainably
  • symbol
  • syndrome
  • t 28
  • tape
  • target
  • technical
  • technique
  • technology
  • temporarily
  • temporary
  • tendency
  • tense
  • terminate
  • theme
  • theoretically
  • theory
  • thereby
  • therefore
  • thesis
  • threshold
  • towards
  • trace
  • tradition
  • transfer
  • transform
  • transit
  • transmit
  • transport
  • trend
  • trigger
  • trivial
  • u 22
  • ultimate
  • uncertainty
  • undeniable
  • undergo
  • underlie
  • underlying
  • undermine
  • underneath
  • undertake
  • undisputed
  • unethical
  • unfortunately
  • uniform
  • unify
  • unintended
  • unique
  • unlikely
  • unprecedented
  • unpredictable
  • unraveled
  • utilise
  • utilitarian
  • v 14
  • valid
  • variety
  • vary
  • vehicle
  • vertically
  • via
  • violate
  • virtual
  • visible
  • vision
  • visual
  • vital
  • volume
  • voluntary
  • w 5
  • wage
  • welfare
  • whereas
  • whereby
  • widespread
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