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[Luis H Spínola] Writing Practice Test 636713

Task 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The table below gives information about the underground railway systems in six cities.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

You should write at least 150 words.

Writing task 1

The table presents an overview of the underground railways systems of six different cities (London, Paris, Tokyo, Washington DC, Kyoto and Los Angeles), presenting its opening dates, lenght of routes (measured in kilometers) and yearly number of passengers.

The european railway systems are the oldest ones. Having been opened in 1863, the London subway is also the lenghtest of all the ones of the six cities, as it has 394 km with an yearly flow of 775 million passengers per year. Meanwhile, Paris underground railway system - opened some few years later in 1927 - has a total size of 199 km, with 1191 million passengers per year.

Japan, on the other hand, has quite an interesting pattern since the railway system of its capital was inaugurated in 1927, while Kyoto's (one of the largest cities in the country) was starred only in 1981. Both systems also present a contrast on length and people flow, Tokyo's has 155 km length of route and it is the most movimented subway out of all the six cities, with approximately 1927 million persons per year. In comparison, Kyoto's has just 11 km of length and a shy annual flow of 45 million people.

On the other hand, American railway systems were inaugurated, respectively, in 1976 (Washington DC) and 2001 (Los Angeles). Washington's is the most notourious out of the two, having 126 km of length and 144 million annual passengers - while Los Angeles' has just 28 km and 50 million users.

Task 2

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

Some people think that a sense of competition in children should be encouraged. Others believe that children who are taught to co-operate rather than compete become more useful adults.

Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

You should write at least 250 words.

Writing task 2

It is noticeable that, over the past few decades, the world has become a very competitive environment - especially regarding competition in work place environments and in professional careers in general. Even though co-operation among children is an important attribute that ought to be estimulated, it is undeniable that a certain sense of competition should also be encouraged and enhanced in children of this and of the next generations.

Over the past decades, the majority of countries have faced an increase on its populational growth. However, recent studies suggest that such trend was not accompanied by an increase on the number of job opportunities. In fact, they state that the total number of jobs in most countries has actually decreased mainly due to innovative technologies - such as the artificial intelligence, the advent of the internet, among others - that are able to automatize simple tasks and to reduce the requirement of employing human beings. Such pattern of increased human population and fewer job opportunities has been responsible for creating a very competitive world. Since competition is assured to be part of every human being's life in this and in the following generations, children should definetly be encouraged to have a competitive sense.

Competition is also part of a person's life since its early days. Usually at school, children are encouraged to achieve high grades in order to become top students. Such stimulus is already a glance of the competitiveness that ought to be amplified during that person's life. When it comes the time of applying for colleges, only the best students will be accepted into the best universities, and when it is time to apply for a first job or internship - only the top university students will be admitted into the best high paying positions. As competition is doomed to be present in multiple stages of life - this is one more evidence to support the argument that children should be encouraged to have a sense of competition.

When it comes to co-operation, it is unargueable that such feature is a very important one in the current business world. However, such characteristc does not excludes the possibility of a person also being competitive. Human beings are often required to co-operate, even during times of pressure in competitive environments. Hence, it is not proper to infer that a children could be only provided with a sense of competition or be taught to co-operate with his colleagues.

In summary, as the world has become notouriously competitive over the past decades and as competition usually starts at an early stage of a person's life - with children and teenagers aiming to achieve high grades in order to become top-perfoming students and to manage being accepted into the best universities and job positions, youngsters should certainly be provided with a sense of competition during the first years of their lives. In addition to that, co-operation and competitiveness are not mutually excludent, and hence, children could be taught to have both of these skills.

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Task 1(Overall)5.5
Task 2(Overall)6.0
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