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雅思备考|雅思写作中容易被忽略的细节

雅思备考|雅思写作中容易被忽略的细节

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雅思作文中非常容易被忽略的一个细节!你真的了解过吗?

其实

标点符号是衡量我们小伙伴雅思写作水平的重要标准

在雅思写作中,很多小伙伴的遣词造句都极好

但标点的使用却差强人意

不是逗号用起来没完,就是滥用感叹号

这让本来优美的学术议论文被拖累不少

甚至还有的同学去到国外上学以后

交给导师一篇通篇没有标点的文章

最后连Pass也没能拿到,非常可惜

其实,英文标点的使用非常有趣,也并不复杂

标点本身的作用是使作者的idea更清楚,重点更突出

有了标点,读者才知道应该在读到哪里该停顿

哪里是作者想强调的内容

才能区分长难句中的主要信息和次要信息

所以就带大家了解一下雅思写作中

老外是如何玩转”标点符号“那些事儿的~~~

为什么标点符号这么重要呢?

01逗号

逗号的主要作用在断句。

例句1:Some wells are vast, open craters with hundreds of steps paving each sloping side, often in tiers.(逗号分隔定语,凸显表达层次。)

例句2:Another example is the Surya Kund in Modhera, northern Gujarat, next to the sun Temple, built by King Bhinma I in 1026 to honour the sun god Surya.(逗号分隔插入语,凸显主干又不失细节。)

例句3:Built in around 850 AD next to the temple of Harshat Mata, the baori comprises hundreds of zigzagging steps that run along three of its sides, steeply descending 11 storeys, resulting in a striking patter when seen from afar.(逗号分隔非谓语,凸显主干。)

例句4:But perhaps the most impressive features are the intricate decorative sculptures that embellish many step-wells, showing activities from fighting and dancing to everyday acts such as women combing their hair or churning butter.(such as前不加逗号,说明such as是对其紧挨着的名词acts进行举例,而不是其他的名词。)

02分号

分号的作用是连接两个意思紧密的句子。如果改用句号,反而会疏远两个句子的关系。需要注意的是,用分号的句子开头首字母“小写”。

例句1:Some were located in or near villages as public spaces for the community; others were positioned beside roads as resting places for travellers.(分号=while表some和others两组对比。)

例句2:When the water level was high, the user needed only to descend a few steps to reach it; when it was low, several levels would have to be negotiated.(分号=and连接两个并列的when)

例句3:Down the centuries, thousands of wells were constructed throughout north-western India, but the majority have now fallen into disuse; many are derelict and dry, as groundwater has been diverted for industrial use and the wells no longer reach the water table.(分号=and连接两个并列的句子thousands of wells和many [wells省略])

例句4:In the old ruined town of Abhaneri, about 95 kilometres east of Jaipur, is chand Baori, one of India's oldest and deepest wells; aesthetically it's perhaps one of the most dramatic.(分号=and在这里起到补充说明的作用,后半句,可以改成“, which aesthetically is perhaps one of the most dramatic.)

03破折号

“解释说明、同位语、插入语”是破折号的功能。注意有时使用一个,有时使用一对。

例句1:For many trees—evergreen conifers being an exception—the best strategy is to abandon photosynthesis until the spring.(插入语)

例句2:However, the significance of this invention—the stepwell—goes beyond its utilitarian application.(同位语+插入语)

例句3:They were also pioneers who carried with them everything they would need to build new lives—their livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools.(解释说明=such as)

04括号

括号的作用在于解释说明或者补充说明,而且用括号括起来,不影响主体意思的表达,解释或者补充一些让读者概念更清晰的内容,使文章理解起来更容易,跟插入语的效果差不多。

例句1:Most stepwells are found dotted round the desert areas of Gujarat (where they are called vav) and Rajasthan (where they are called baori), while a few also survive in Delhi.

例句2:In Patan, the state's ancient capital, the stepwell of Rani Ki Vav (Queen's Stepwell) is perhaps the finest current example.

05冒号

使表达内容具体化,可以用于解释、举例、话术具体内容。注意,冒号后面有首字母大写和小写两种情况,通常只有人物话术的时候才大写,其他都小写。

例句1:Their condition hasn't been helped by recent dry spells: southern Rajasthan suffered an eight-year drought between 1996 and 2004.(举例)

例句2:Macfarlane says: 'The infant mortality rate halved in the space of 20 years, and this happened in both rural areas and cities, and across all classes.'(话术)

例句3:But scientific progress is not all theoretical, knowledge is also vital to outstanding performance: individuals who know a great deal about a specific domain will achieve at a higher level than those who do not.(解释)

06连字符

连字符在“组团形容词”方面表现良好,自由组合,完美体现语言灵活性~特此多举一些例子方便烤鸭们体会并应用。注意,一般情况下,连字符比破折号短小一点。

例句1:Why did this particular Big Band—the world-changing birth of industry—happen in Britain?

例句2:For industry to take off, there needs to be the technology and power to drive factories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour, easy transport to move goods around, an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects, a market-driven economy and a political system that allows this to happen.

例句3:Historians had alighted on one interesting factor around the mid-18th century that required explanation.

使用标点需要注意些什么?

1. 首先要注意句号只能用在一个句子的结尾。其次在句子的开头必须要用大写字母,而且专有名词要注意每个实词的首字母都要大写。在这顺便解释一下实词的范围,即名词、代词、形容词、数词、动词和副词。

例如:the Eiffel Tower, the University of North London。

2. 逗号是可以用来分开句子的不同部分,避免意思上的混乱的。此外,额外的信息也是可以在逗号之间被加入的。我们可以看一个例句。

The pollution of rivers, which is often caused by chemical wasteand fertilizer, is causing enormous problems for fishermen, especially inBritain.

在上面句子中用到了三次逗号,其中前两个是为了将非限制性定语从句与主句分开,而最后一个逗号是为了将后面的信息与fishermen分离开,表明especially 连接的是Britain,而不是前面的内容。

其次,在大多数的连接词之后都会用逗号。而如果连接词在句中的话,那么词前和词后都需要加逗号。此外,在大多数的条件状语从句中都要使用逗号。例句如下:

Therefore, the use of chemicals on farms should be bettercontrolled.

However, even if such laws were passed tomorrow, most riverswould take years to recover.

3. 分号通常被用来列出一组列表中的内容,但是在写作中,它一般会被用来连接两个在语法上独立和完整,但是句子间有紧密关系的句子。然而,如果两个句子是完整的句子结构的话,我们通常会直接用句号代替。例如:

Chemical waste from factories is still drained into riversystems; it is hard to believe that this Practice is still allowed by law in some areas.

4. 冒号通常在你需要别人注意你接下来所给出的信息时使用。例如:

The environment is important for the following reasons: ....

5. 引号被用来给出引用或标题,而单引号的使用表现出的是所属关系和缩写。

例如:farmer’s profits, there’s, etc.

6. 在正式的写作中,不要使用任何缩写,而应当写出全称。也就是通常我们所用的don't, shouldn't, can't 等都要相应的变成do not, should not, cannot.

7. 在雅思写作中,不要使用叹号,也要避免使用问号。

8. 括号是比较有用的符号,特别是在Task 1中可以用来引用数据,但是也不要过度使用。

通过以上的例句和讲解,不知道小伙伴们是否明确地掌握了标点符号的正确使用。如果能顺利理解,那么就赶快行动起来,让自己的写作表达更加内容丰富,清晰有型。

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