Nhảy đến nội dung
-- seconds remaining

Part 1


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-11, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.


  • The birth of the hot air balloon is largely contributed to the efforts of two French brothers, Joseph and Etienne Montgolfier, who employed the fact that hot air was lighter than cool air and using this, managed to lift a small silk balloon 32 metres into the air. The brothers went on to elevate a balloon into the air ten thousand metres before it started to descend and then exploded. Arguably limited success, but their work came to the eye of the French Science Academy as the discovery of the properties of hot air balloons helped scientists to study weather patterns and the atmosphere.
  • It was not until some considerable time later that a balloon was launched that was capable of carrying passengers. Initial flights were trialled by animals, but after the success of these voyages, two passengers, Jean Francois Pilatre and Francois Laurent d’Arlendes, were sent up in a balloon which travelled across Paris for 29 minutes. The men fuelled the fire in the centre of their wicker basket to keep the balloon elevated and the trip across Paris was a great success.
  • The discovery of hydrogen-fuelled flights led to the death in 1785 of Pilatre, a tragedy which caused a downfall in the popularity of hot air ballooning but an increase in the popularity of hydrogen. Hot air ballooning lost further ground when alternate modes of air travel were introduced» but in the 1950s, ballooning experienced something of a revival as a leisure activity and sport. Today there are balloons of all shapes and sizes, with many unique designs.
  • In 1987, British entrepreneur Richard Branson crossed the Atlantic in a balloon named Virgin Atlantic Flyer. At the time, this balloon was the largest ever constructed at 65 thousand cubic metres, but four years later, he and Per Lindstrand from Sweden flew nearly 8000 kilometres from Japan to Northern Canada in their balloon the Virgin Pacific Flyer, which was nearly 10 thousand cubic metres bigger and was the longest flight in a hot air balloon ever made. The Pacific Flyer was designed to fly in the trans-oceanic jet streams and recorded the highest ground speed for a manned balloon at 394 kilometres per hour.
  • There are now a wide variety of designs and equipment available, from baskets with room for two people right up to 35 or more, separated compartments and specially designed flame resistant fabrics, but the basic parts of the balloon have remained relatively unchanged. There is a basket, commonly made of wicker, inside which are stored the propane fuel tanks. Immediately above the basket and partly wrapped around by the skirt are the burners, attached on suspension wires. The balloon itself is made of strips of fabric called gores which run from the skirt to the top of the balloon; they are further broken into individual panels. This section of the craft is referred to as the envelope. At the top of the envelope is a self closing flap that allows hot air to escape at a controlled rate to slow ascents or cause the balloon to descend descents. This is named the parachute valve, and is controlled by the vent line – the cable that runs the length of the envelope and hangs just above the basket so the pilot can open and close the parachute valve.
  • At the mercy of prevailing wind currents, piloting a balloon takes a huge amount of skill but the controls used are fairly straight forward. To lift a balloon the pilot moves the control which releases propane. The pilot can control the speed of the balloon by increasing or decreasing the flow of propane gas, but they cannot control horizontal direction. As a result, balloons are often followed by ground crew, who may have to pick up the pilot, passengers and balloon from any number of landing sites. A pilot who wants to fly a hot air balloon must have his commercial pilot’s license to fly and must have at least 35 hours of flight instruction. There are no official safety requirements for passengers onboard, but they should know whom they’re flying with and what qualifications they may have. For safety reasons, hot air balloons don’t fly in the rain because the heat in the balloon can cause water to boil on top of the balloon and destroy the fabric.
  • One of the largest hot air balloon organisations is the Balloon Federation of America. Founded in 1961, membership in the BFA attracts those with a fascination with ballooning (or ‘Lighter Than Air’ flight). With an active discussion forum, meetings and displays all around the USA and beyond, the BFA runs on a number of guiding principles, primarily that the future of ballooning is directly related to the safety of enthusiasts. They run a number of training courses, from a novice who is interested in getting a basic licence to pilot achievement courses. They even boast of a balloon simulator, which although will not directly lead to a pilot’s license, it can give participants a degree of the sensation enjoyed by professional balloon pilots.

Part 2


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 12-23, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.


A. Downloading music from the internet has become a simple, fast and easy thing to do. The correct or legal way of going about it seems to be ignored by those who find it too costly. Illegal music downloads have reached an all time high, and a recent survey of high school students revealed an estimated 3.6 billion songs being downloaded per month. There are now endless possibilities available to the public where music can be downloaded for free and people are choosing to take this route even though it is illegal. iTunes is one of the most well known sites where music can be bought legally for just over 51 per track. So when it is this cheap why are people still going to alternative unauthorized sites? Or is the legal route still considered a costly way to go about it?

B. If you think that copying music results in simply a slap on the wrist, think twice. Under government law, record companies are entitled to $750 to $30,000 per infringement but the law allows the jury to increase that to as much as $150,000 per song if it finds the infringements were deliberate. The music industry has threatened about 35,000 people with charges of copyright Infringement over the past decade. In recent months there have been more cases of music piracy heading to the courts. The industry estimates that more than a hundred of these cases remain unsettled in court, with fewer than 10 offenders actively arguing the case against them. The penalties for breaching the copyright act differ slightly depending upon whether the infringing is for commercial or private financial gain, with the latter punishment being far milder.

C. Nonetheless, the potential gain from illegal downloading versus the punitive measures that can be taken are, in many cases, poles apart. Recently, an American woman shared 27 illegally downloaded songs with her friends and was ordered to pay $1.92 million to the record company for deliberate infringement of the companies’ copyrights. More recently in America a 12 year old girl was sued for downloading music illegally and could face a penalty of $1150per song. The order of payment from the courts to the American woman who shared the 27 tracks with her friends has spurred controversy as the public disagree with the ordered Infringement. The woman shared 27 songs at $1.99 per song, so should she be liable to pay such a large and impossible amount?

D. It has also been noted that of all measures that can be taken, fining is actually the least likely method of preventing further abuse. With driving, for example, statistics have shown that those that repeatedly drive over the speed limit are not discouraged by the loss of a sum of money, but this attitude quickly changed when the penalty was possibly losing their driving licence or even spending time in prison.

E. Being a difficult thing to police, the music industry has decided that it would be much easier to go after the internet service provider than to try and track down each individual case. The music industry feels internet piracy has decreased their artists’ sales dramatically and is a danger to their business, although on the other hand, online music sales promote individual tracks to be sold rather than albums, therefore increasing the amount spent by the purchaser.

F. If there are so many issues around the downloading of music, you might wonder why sales of MP3 players and CD burners are increasing rapidly The answer is simple – these devices do have a legitimate purpose defined as ‘fair use’. You can choose to make your personal back-up copy to use in a MP3 player, or you may visit one of many web sites, like iTunes, which offers music that you pay for as you download. While some may wonder why you would pay for something that can be had for free, those who do prefer to obey the copyright protection laws have purchased over 150 million songs from the iTunes site alone.

G. Online music sales are a business just like any other and music companies are fighting to salvage their industry. Cary Sherman, the President of RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America), stated that when your product is being regularly stolen, there comes a time when you have to take appropriate action. At the same time, the RIAA has offered amnesty to the illegal downloader who decide to come forward and agree to stop illegally downloading music over the Internet. People who have already been sued are obviously not eligible for amnesty.

H. When high school students were asked how they felt about the business of downloading illegally from the net, they appeared to be divided on the issue. Some seemed to think there was absolutely nothing wrong with it, others felt that it should be thought of as a serious crime like any other form of theft.

Part 3


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 24 – 40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

The natural world

A. The natural world is dominated by cycles that are constant and repeated – the moon’s rotation around the earth, the changing of the seasons, the changes between night and day. It is these cycles or rhythms that in part control changes in our metabolism, mood and behaviour, and even the patterns of our sleep.

B. The circadian rhythm is the cycle that indicates when to be awake and when to be asleep. This is a daily cycle that is controlled by changes in amplitude (highs and lows) of light and temperature. As day turns to night, the sun sets and it becomes cooler. The triggers of less light and lower temperatures signal to the body that it is time to slow and begin the pattern of sleep. Of course, there may be many hours between sunset and the time people actually go to bed, but it is from this time that we generally become increasingly less alert and reaction times can be noticeably slower.

C. There are a number of factors that can affect our circadian rhythm. Working night shifts, which requires people to act in contradiction to the body’s natural rhythm, is perhaps the most damaging. Despite getting a good 8 hours sleep during the day, night shift workers still tend to feel drowsy for at least some of the night. This is the main factor for the increase in workplace accidents on this shift when compared to the day shift. The seasons can also affect our natural rhythm, with people having less energy during winter months when there is less sunlight and warmth to stimulate the brain. International travel, notably when travelling in excess of 4 hours, can also have a significant effect; in extreme cases, it can take up to 7 days for your rhythm to reset due to this, a phenomenon referred to as jet lag. A similar, although milder, effect can be felt in countries with daylight savings time, when the clocks are moved forward and backward depending on the season.

D. There are some tips for helping your body work with your circadian rhythm. First thing in the morning take a short walk outside or open all the curtains to get as much light as possible through the eyes and into the brain. Lighting levels that affect circadian rhythm in humans are higher than the levels usually used in artificial lighting in homes. In addition to the strength of the light, wavelength (or colour) of light is a factor, the best being that present in sunlight. Plan your work and other activities around the highs and lows of your temperature rhythm. For example, plan easier activities for first thing in the morning when you’re not operating at your physical best. Late morning is better for challenging tasks. After lunch you may feel like nodding off. Take scheduled breaks. The best time to exercise is in the late afternoon – your body temperature reaches its daily high, it is warmed up and stretched from spending your day at work. Avoid driving during sleep times. Sleepy drivers should stop for a nap – playing loud music or leaving windows open is an overrated misconception. At night, close the blinds and curtains and sleep in a dark room. If you work the night shift, use bright lights and music in the workplace to keep your brain alert. Wear an eye mask to block out the light when you want to go to sleep.

E. Every human – in fact, most non-nocturnal animals – follow the basic rules of the circadian rhythm. However, we also have our own unique body clocks which control the daily changes in how we think and feel, and oversee a number of our personal characteristics such as sleep patterns. Your body clock dictates whether you are a night owl, happy to work late into the night, an early bird who prefers the morning or a humming bird, happy to work both ends of the day. Your body clock determines not only your personal sleep patterns, but also whether or not you are grumpy before you have your morning coffee, when and what you need to eat throughout the day, whether you work better In the morning or the afternoon and the best time for you to do exercise. It also affects physical performance, such as temperature, blood pressure, digestion, hormone levels and brain activity (such as mood, behaviour, and alertness). Your body clock is what causes you to gain a few kilograms in autumn and winter time and to make it easier to lose weight in spring and summer.

F. Being aware of a few issues can help us maintain the best rhythms for our body docks, but there are some tips and tools for that can help. Keeping to the same bedtime routine and wake-up schedule, even on your days off, is particularly important – there should be no more than a few hours difference in the time you go to bed. Avoiding interruptions to your sleep is also very important. If there is intermittent, irregular noise, use a fan or any white noise device that generates calming sounds. This is particularly important for night shift workers, for whom daytime noises are generally louder; soft, background noise can help drown out daytime activity noises. Eat small frequent meals to help stoke your metabolism. This is not only helpful in weight maintenance, but reinforces the “day” phase of your circadian clock. Eat most of your energy foods earlier in the day and avoid eating a heavy meal near bedtime. Avoid all-nighters, like studying all night before an assessment. Cutting back on sleep the night before may mean that you perform less well. Reduce changes to your work shift, such as changing from night shift to day shift. Avoid alcohol and cigarettes before sleep time. If you feel sleepy during the day, take a short nap. Set an alarm so you sleep for no more than about 20 minutes. Anything more than just a ‘catnap’ and you will enter into Stage 3 (deep sleep) and find it harder to wake up from.

Part 1

Questions 1–4

Do the following statements agree with the given in the reading passage?

In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet write

TRUE.if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE.if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN.If there is no information on this

1. The Montgolfier brothers were the first people to fly in a hot air balloon.

2. Hot air ballooning became less popular in the late eighteenth century.

3. The largest hot air balloon had a capacity of over 75000 cubic metres.

4. Membership of the BFA is only open to people in America.

Questions 5–7

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 5- 7 on your answer sheet.

Who accompanied the entrepreneur on the longest balloon flight?

Who follows a hot air balloon’s flight to retrieve the craft when it lands?

What can give newcomers to the sport some idea of the feeling of flying a balloon?

Questions 8–11

Label the diagram below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 8- 11 on your answer sheet.

apr 2017 R1 Q8-11.png

Part 2

Questions 12-16

The reading passage has eight paragraphs, A-H.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Type the correct letter A-H in boxes 12-16.

12. The disparity between fines and costs

13. The potential costs of piracy to the defendant

14. The number of songs illegally obtained from the internet

15. Ambivalence towards the problem

16. A reprieve for illegal downloaders

Questions 17-20

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 17 – 20 on your answer sheet.

The maximum fine that a record company can impose is

The penalty for breaking copyright laws is harsher when undertaken for benefit.

The music industry targets each rather than each specific person downloading illegally.

Appliances used in connection with illegal downloads are sold under the term

Questions 21-23

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?

In boxes 21-23 on your answer sheet write

TRUE.if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE.if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN.If there is no information on this

21. Most people sued for illegal downloading actively fight back against the record company.

22. Illegal downloading can be difficult to monitor and control.

23. High school students are responsible for illegally downloading the most music.

Part 3

Questions 24–30

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?

In boxes 24-30 on your answer sheet write

TRUE.if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE.if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN.If there is no information on this

24. Our reactions are at their slowest at sunset.

25. There are more accidents on the night shift because workers tend to get less sleep.

26. Limited air travel has minimal effect on the body’s circadian rhythm.

27. The circadian rhythm starts when light reaches the brain.

28. If a driver is tired, taking a short sleep, listening to music or winding down the window are all equally effective measures for keeping awake.

29. Humans share the same trends with regards their body clocks.

30. Many people take a short rest just after eating lunch.

Questions 31-36

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 31 – 36 on your answer sheet

As well as the intensity, what else is important in sunlight for our circadian rhythm?

What specific part of the day is the body at its warmest?

What should night shift workers use to help them sleep?

What type of person works equally well in the morning and the evening?

What does our body clock make it easier to do after the winter?

What should you avoid before bed to help you get a good night’s sleep?

Questions 37-40

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from Reading Passage 3 for each answer.

Keep a good by following routines. Try to sleep and wake at roughly the same times when working and on days off.

Use noise to help you sleep if there are external distractions.

Small and regular meals keep your operating at its best. Limit changes to your work shift, and if necessary take a short during the day.

Part 1 :
0 of 11 questions
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Part 2 :
0 of 12 questions
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Part 3 :
0 of 17 questions
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Thông báo