READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
The Eisriesenwelt Ice Caves
A: Most caves are found in coastal regions, their existence being down to pure water erosion. Other common cave formations include those caused by lifting and volcanic lava streams. Eisriesenwelt, which holds the longest known system of ice caves in the world, was not formed by any one of these processes alone, and, in fact, owes its existence primarily to the water-soluble nature of the limestone rock found in the limestone mountains of the Austrian Alps around Salzburg.
B: The Alps themselves, one of the largest mountainous regions on earth, which stretch across most of Austria, Germany, Switzerland and on into Italy and France as well, were created by a process called lifting. The African and European tectonic plates moved towards each other. The impact of the eventual collision of the plates resulted in the formation of a large mountainous ridge stretching across the impact line. As the two plates continued to push towards each other, the ridge grew in size, eventually leading to the formation of cracks, rock displacements and fault lines. Once the Alps were raised, the hollow areas formed by pressure cracks started to be worked on by outside influences, especially water, and these influences then played their part over millions of years in the creation of the subterranean passages of Eisriesenwelt that we are familiar with today.
C: Rock composition also played an important role in the formation of the alpine caves. Extensive cave systems like Eisriesenwelt tend only to be located in the limestone Alps, primarily on account of limestone being water soluble, especially when it comes into contact with rain water that has been enriched with organic material. Over time, the limestone which came into contact with rain water broke down and dissolved, leaving large hollow areas to form underground. When the caves were first forming a few million years ago, the climate of the region was sub-tropical, meaning the level of solubility was even higher than it is today, so the erosion of the limestone occurred at a higher rate, too.
D: Corrosion is the chemical dissolution of rock. In the case of Eisriesenwelt, when rain water came into contact with the limestone rock, lime, or CaC03, was being corroded.
But water alone is not enough to corrode rock. Pure water has fewer H+ ions and would not cause lime to dissolve. Only when carbon dioxide or C02 from the air and vegetation is introduced is an aggressive acid, known as carbonic acid, formed. When this acid permeates the cracks in the limestone, the limestone dissolves. As it dissolves, wider cracks open in the stone allowing more water to pass through, which, in turn, causes greater erosion of the rock. High levels of precipitation, characteristic of the alpine region, resulted in greater volumes of water collecting and flowing through the hollow areas of the stone, and at faster rates. The greater volume of water and rate of flow combined eroded the caves further and led to an increasing amount of material being washed away. This resulted in the formation of the spectacular geological features of the Alps, such as the long gorges, shafts and canyons to be found there.
E: In short, the Eisriesenwelt caves were formed as a result of a combination of various factors: primarily lifting, corrosion and water erosion. The caves themselves are unremarkable, though, similar examples being relatively widespread in limestone areas around the world. What sets Eisriesenwelt apart is the unique ice formations that are present in a significant amount of the cave expanse. Of the millions of known cave systems in the world, relatively few are genuine ice caves in which ice is present year-round. That is what makes the Eisriesenwelt caves so special.
F: Eisriesenwelt is what’s known as a dynamic ice cave system, the other types being static ice caves and glacier caves. Static ice caves, as the name would suggest, have a consistent level of ice cover year-round and a fairly even temperature. In winter, the air temperature outside the cave might reach below minus 20 degrees Celsius for example. When it becomes colder than the air inside the cave, the air in the cave rises to escape and the cold air fills the space left behind. In summer, though, the temperature outside the cave is warmer than it is inside and the cold air in the cave, being heavier than the hot air outside, cannot escape and remains in a cold pocket, keeping the cave at a fairly constant temperature below freezing. Glacier caves are easier to explain, simply the product of melt water carving a route for itself down from the mountain.
G: Dynamic caves are a little different and the basic principle of a dynamic ice cave is the chimney effect: the requirement for a cave to have at least two entrances, one at relatively low altitude and the other at a much higher altitude. In winter, when the outside temperature is very low, the (comparatively) warm temperature within the cave system’s rock causes a draft which rises up through the cave towards the uppermost cave entrance. As a result of cold air streaming in from outside, the rock in the lower part of the cave then starts to radically cool. In summer, the outside temperature is much higher than the inside one, so the draft goes the other way, with warm air streaming in from the topmost entrance towards the lower levels. But, before this warm air can reach the lower levels of the cave, it has cooled considerably, so, as a result, the lower levels maintain a fairly constant year-round temperature close to freezing. Consequently, water that seeps into the lower part of the cave tends to freeze causing ice to build up, giving the spectacular ice formations for which the area has become known.
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
What's the best smartphone on the market?
The new HTC 4G is, for now at least, restricted from showing us its true potential since, as Australia's first 4G phone, it is ahead of its time and must wait for the 4G infrastructure to be put in place before it can really be appreciated. As things stand, and limited to use as a 3G handset, the HTC stacks up well against its competitors though. There is a very generous screen size of 4.3 inches, and the graphics and screen resolution are very sharp. This is perhaps both the phone's greatest strength and its greatest weakness because, for all the good of having a large, sharp screen image, this comes at a cost, that being that the HTC is a bulkier, weightier model than most of its peers. Size issues aside however, you cannot help but admire the sheer range of features on this handset. An 8-megapixel camera, and a front-side 1.2 megapixel for voice calls, and high-definition image quality should you switch to recording mode make the need to carry any casual photographic or recording equipment around with you almost redundant Perhaps no more than a blip, as company engineers and programmers assure us a fix will be issued shortly, but it must be said that the battery life is slightly disappointing; a regular daily charge is simply a necessity as any longer would leave you, well, flat!
The Nexus employs energy-efficient screen technology, making it an instant hit for the many who have been thus far frustrated by the lack of battery longevity smartphones have offered up. Design isn't compromised either and this handset is light and compact (the practicalities are covered then) not to mention sleek and funky. The 5-megapixel rear-facing camera is handy to have in an emergency, but can hardly be relied upon to produce the sort of imagery we have come to expect from such products. Autofocus and an inbuilt flash do help to enhance image quality, but this device falls just a few too many pixels short and so trails behind its rivals in the multimedia department, and not by a neck, but several lengths at least.
The iPhone series have been market leading devices ever since Apple entered the smartphone sector, and seldom is there more excitement in techie circles than when a new iPhone model is released. Cue fierce applause and much gasping then, for Apple's latest offering is now on sale in a store near you! The new iPhone has the sharpest and clearest display of any smartphone on the market, and, quite simply, in almost every aspect of design, it is king. In fact, the quality of kit gone into this phone almost beggars belief and gives the handset the feel of being indestructible, which, given the quality of manufacture, is not too far wide off the mark.
There are, of course, the trademark front-and rear-display cameras on the new iPhone, and, though at 8 megapixels the main camera is, well, hardly earth-shatteringly impressive, don't be too quick to write off the iPhone's multimedia credentials. Remember to start with that the screen and recording devices operate in High Definition, and let's not overlook the vast number of complementary media apps - Apple is in a league of its own in the apps market, and this is perhaps one of the main reasons it has so many diehard fans. Another factor which is crucial to this device's popularity is the fact that you can leave home confident there will be no need to beg for a charger from someone in the office halfway through the day. Battery life on this handset is not market-leading, but the iPhone certainly outperforms its nearest rivals in that department. A genuine contender for best buy.
The new Motorola should not be thought of so much as a smartphone; as a mini- computer, such is the manner in which this device performs. With massive processing and memory capabilities, Motorola users can download video, image and music files without giving a second thought to whether or not there is enough unused space, and, with 16GB internal memory and scope to add on another 32GB via an external memory card, why would you? The main camera though, given how high-spec everything else about this device seems to be, is somewhat of a disappointment. At only 5 megapixels, you do wonder what the designers were thinking; after all, had they even matched their rivals at HTC in this area, the Motorola would have been a standout handset that left its competitors trailing in its wake. As things stand, the Motorola is a definite player and will appeal to those for whom the smartphone is primarily a work-related device, as its unrivailed processing capability and compatibility with most office software make it the perfect travel companion for every busy businessman and businesswoman out there. However,
Motorola have missed a trick or two in failing to target the many smartphone buyers more interested in entertainment features like high-megapixel cameras. Had they combined their download power with a better 'picture snapper', they could have cornered the entire market; this is an opportunity lost, you feel.
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
The Australian Visa Application Process Explained
Applications for Australian visas are now accepted online. You should, however, be in possession of the following documents before you embark on the application process: (i) your current passport (valid for at least 6 months at the date of application), (ii) your sponsor and associated nomination approval number or transaction reference number [(ii) only applies to Long-Stay Temporary Business Visa applicants]. In order to proceed online, you should also have up-to-date internet browsers loaded on your computer and an internationally accepted credit card to pay the application charge.
Before embarking on the application process, it is recommended that you understand a little more about what this process entails and the steps involved. That is why this guide has been designed. Please read on to get a better understanding of what will happen next once you start your application.
The first and most important thing to do is to check that the visa you have selected is appropriate to your circumstances. At the start of the online application, you will be asked a number of questions that will help you to confirm that you have chosen the right kind of visa to apply for. Please remember that certain visas are not available to apply for over the internet and may require your presence at your local Australian embassy or consulate should you wish to proceed with your application. In general, however, most people will find that they can apply online as our most common types of visas (working-holiday, student, employer-sponsored, etc.) can be accessed over the internet.
Before starting the application process officially (by clicking the Apply Online button), please read all the accompanying guidelines and information about the type of visa application you have chosen to make. These details will appear on Page 1 of the online application and should be read through thoroughly before the applicant continues and the process officially starts. It is also necessary to accept the terms and conditions before you continue by checking the I Agree box.
Once you have moved on to the actual application form itself, there will be between 5 and 9 short screens to complete, depending on the type of visa you are applying for. As a rough estimate, allow yourself about 4 minutes to fill in the information on each screen. On this basis, it should take you a maximum of about 40 minutes to complete the form. All applications will ask you for your personal details, namely your passport number, travel document details, name and current place of residence, contact information, declarations with respect to your health and character, etc.
Applicants for Long-Stay Business visas will also be asked for details of their business sponsor. Student visa applicants should outline their education history and their intended course of study in Australia. Applicants for Tourist visas should outline their travel plans, reason for visiting and employment status, and so on. Once you have completed all the screens that form part of the application form, answering all questions as truly and honestly as possible, you will be given the opportunity to review the information you have supplied and print a copy of the visa application for reference purposes if you wish.
You are now ready to submit your application, but there is one more thing you must do before the option to submit appears - make the payment. You will be prompted to enter your payment information after you have confirmed that all the details entered in your application are, to the best of your knowledge, true. When the bank accepts payment, a Transaction Reference Number will be automatically generated. You should make a note of this and keep it safe as it should be quoted when making any inquiries related to your application in the future. Once the application has been submitted, you may be prompted to download and print certain health forms, but only if you are applying from overseas (not applicable to those applying from inside of Australia itself). Please follow any other requirements as stipulated on the screen as special pre-entry conditions must be met for some types of visas.
Most applications will be processed electronically and notification will be sent by post or email (whichever method you selected on your application form) within the time frame outlined onscreen during your application. For student visas, that’s about 10 working days. Tourist visas are normally finalised in less than two weeks. Working-holiday visas take no more than 2 days and so on. Occasionally, it may be necessary for a representative from the immigration department to contact you, and, in some cases, further health checks, information, or a formal interview may be required.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
The majority of caves around the world are found in coastal areas and were formed as a result of what substance acting on rock?
What process is responsible for the creation of the large mountainous ridge which stretches across much of Europe, more commonly known as the Alps?
What large areas were enabled to form by the limestone rock present in parts of the Alps?
Reading Passage 1 has seven sections, A-G.
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-G. Some letters may be used more than once; others not at all.
4. How rare ice caves and ice-cave systems are
5. How serious weathering of limestone rock in the Alps was responsible for the formation of other features besides caves
6. An explanation of why limestone was eroded more quickly in the distant past than it is being today
7. How the mountain range which is home to the Eisriesenwelt caves was formed
8. How caves with more than one entrance from which air can escape all year round can always remain cold enough in parts for ice to be present
9. How rock corrosion and water erosion do not necessarily have to play a direct role in the formation of ice caves
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Look at the following statements, 14-20, and decide which smartphone model, A-D, the statements relate to.
Write the correct letter, A-D.
14. This phone will not be able to showcase all of its strengths until the country’s communication system has been upgraded.
15. This phone is a very practical device that can process information quickly and has very high storage capacity.
16. This phone’s greatest asset is also a liability which makes it more burdensome to carry around.
17. This phone would stand up to a lot of abuse; such is the quality of manufacture gone into it.
18. This phone could have threatened to dominate the smartphone market had it not overlooked an important entertainment feature.
19. This phone provides access to a lot more of something than any of the rival phone models can.
20. This phone employs special technology designed to conserve energy and enhance battery life.
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below. Write the correct letter, A-E.
|that of a small computer, except in the memory and processing stakes where it comes up short.
|that the excellent flash and focus functions are still not enough to compensate.
|that of devices specifically designed to execute far more complex tasks than a phone is supposed to.
|that it is no longer necessary to carry extra camera and recording equipment unless you are looking for professional results.
|that professional and amateur photographers alike will find that it satisfies all their needs.
21. The HTC 4G has such a high-quality camera
22. The failings of the Nexus camera are such
23. The functionality of the Motorola can be likened to
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2?
|if the statement agrees with the views of the writer
|if the statement contradicts the views of the writer
|if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
24. In order to produce an energy-efficient phone, the Nexus manufacturers have compromised on certain design features.
25. The iPhone is superior to its rivals in many design aspects.
26. The Motorola Atrix is unlikely to be a huge success since there are more smartphone users who use their phones for entertainment than for work purposes.
Complete the flow-chart below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
|(i) Complete the onscreen questionnaire to confirm you have chosen the correct type or visa for your circumstances.
Not all types of visa applications can be accessed
(ii) Click Apply Online. Read the guidelines on Page 1 on how to apply carefully. Then, to start the actual application process, tick the once you have familiarised yourself with, and if you accept, the
Allow yourself approximately at most to complete the form, or 4 minutes for
|(iii) You are now in the main application form. You will have to fill in information on between 5 and 9 short screens, depending on which visa you want. Fill in the form carefully and answer all questions
|(iv) the details you have entered and, if you wish, print a copy of the application for your
If applying from overseas, you may be prompted to download and complete certain health forms. Follow any requirements stipulated.
|(v) Wait to be , then enter your payment information. Record your , which will be generated once your bank has accepted the payment request. Now click Submit and your application has gone through.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Choose the TWO correct letters from A, B, C, D and E.