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Reading passage 1

Read the text below and answer Questions 1-8.

If you want to be healthy and save the environment at the same time, then the edible water bottle is probably right up your street! A creation of design student Rodrigo Garcia Gonzalez, this ingenious container could be the answer to plastic pollution. Whilst Gonzalez may have had trouble previously convincing a sceptical public as to the merits of his remote-controlled 'Hop!' suitcase in 2014, this time he may actually be onto a winner.

The need for such an invention is quite patent. Discarded plastic bottles make up an alarming statistic: there are 46,000 pieces of floating plastic originating from plastic bottles for every square mile of the ocean. Add to that the 1.5 million tonnes of crude oil required annually to manufacture enough bottles to provide the 50 billion plastic bottles supplied annually to the US, and it's clear that something needs to be done.

Whilst environmentalists may be pinning their hopes on Gonzalez's invention to reduce plastic pollution, the prototype edible plastic bottle, christened 'Ooho/ is however very much in its early stages. For a start, the 'bottle' itself is more reminiscent of a beach-stranded jellyfish in appearance than a conventional water bottle. Translucent and squishy in texture, it would probably take a very committed environmentalist to be able to actually consume the bottle when it's empty. Ooho's inventor does however claim in its favour that the taste is at least palatable even if the flavour is somewhat nondescript.

Gastronomic failings apart, Ooho bottles also present challenges for storage and hygiene. With regard to the former problem, the bottles are somewhat flimsy in construction. Gonzalez, however, is currently working on a fortified bottle with a double membrane construction but has yet to produce a bottle that is more resilient than the skin found in fruit. As for the latter problem of hygiene, well, would you like to consume a casing that has been manhandled throughout manufacture, transportation and again by countless consumers when placed on the shelves in supermarkets? A solution would be to encase the bottles of course in a hermetically sealed outer covering; but to encase them in a plastic casing defeats the whole point of the object of reducing plastic pollution. So it's back to the drawing board as regards the finer points of retailing the bottles.

Gonzalez, though, is not to be deterred by the finer points of construction weaknesses and hygiene issues. Currently he has secured a creative commons licence for his project, which means that his Ooho bottle will soon be available for sale online. Hopefully all teething problems to date will have resolved themselves by the time online sales go ahead. In the meantime, those who are truly conservation-minded would do best to just recycle and refill old water bottles with filtered water. This is surely a simpler and more effective solution to plastic pollution than any manufacturer or designer could come up with.

Read the texts below and answer Questions 9-14.

London Walking Tours

A. London Architecture Walks

A professional interest is not a prerequisite to enjoy this leisurely tour of London’s most I prominent buildings. Taking in a range of architectural designs spanning several centuries, this tour will delight young and old alike. Routes vary so please call in advance for details of daily departure points.

Tel: 020 4578 8894


B. Jack the Ripper Walks

Retrace the final steps of the Ripper's with renowned Ripper expert, David Thomson. Places are limited and tickets are sold on a first-come-first-served basis. Concessions available for under 14s. Tours weather permitting.

Daily departures from Aldgate East underground station at 19.00

Tickets: £8

C. Original London Sightseeing Walks

This well-established tour is always well-subscribed. Come rain or shine, we will take you on what is the most comprehensive tour of London. Taking in the familiar sights as well as the more tucked-away treasures of the capital, you will improve your knowledge of London as well as be entertained by our knowledgeable, fully qualified guides en route. Combined tickets for city walk and bus tour available with special discount.

Cost for walking or bus tour only: £7 Combined Ticket: £10.50

Under 13:

£3.50 for walking or bus tour only

£5.50 for combined ticket

Departure point: Tower Hill Station Tours on the hour from 10am-6pm

D. London Duck Tours

See London from an entirely new perspective as you plunge into the River Thames on your semi-submersible World War II DUKW vehicle. Cruise past major London landmarks before re-emerging upstream at Westminster Bridge for our land-based tour. Multiple daily departures from 10.30am.

Tickets: £21, Child: £14

Tel: 020 7926 3134


Departure point: Waterloo railway station

E. Big Bus Tours

Non-stop multilingual tours from 9am-7pm around the city’s very best sights. A hop-on hop-off ticket with 50 stops. Tickets valid for 24 hours, plus three free walking tours and a River Thames Cruise pass included.

Tickets: £26, Child: £ 13

Departure: Charing Cross underground and railway station

Tel: 020 4635 8896

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