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READING PASSAGE 1

TOTAL FIRE BANS

Read the notice on total fire bans, and answer questions 1-4.

TEXT 1

Total Fire Bans affect everyone. Whether you live in the city, the suburbs or in the country, you need to know when one is declared and what this means you can't do.

WHAT IS A TOTAL FIRE BAN?

A Total Fire Ban prohibits:

• the lighting of any fires in the open air

• any other activities in the open air that may start a fire.

Undercover areas such as patios, pergolas and huts that are open or partially open to the weather are deemed to be in the open air.

WHEN WILL A TOTAL FIRE BAN BE DECLARED?

The decision to put a ban in place is based on weather forecast and local conditions. A Total Fire Ban will be declared on days when fires are most likely to threaten lives and property.

HOW WILL I KNOW WHEN A TOTAL FIRE BAN HAS BEEN DECLARED?

When a ban has been declared it will be:

• on the DFES website www.dfes.wa.gov.au

• on the Total Fire Ban information line 1800 709 355

• broadcast on ABC local radio and other media outlets

• published to subscribers through the DFES website's automated RSS feeds

• published on DFES's Twitter account

• displayed on local government roadside Fire Danger Rating signs.

HOW LONG IS A TOTAL FIRE BAN IN PLACE FOR?

The ban will generally be in place from 12.01am to 11.59pm on the day declared; however, if weather conditions change significantly, times may vary.

WHAT ARE THE PENALTIES FOR IGNORING A TOTAL FIRE BAN?

You could be fined up to $25 000 and/or jailed for 12 months for ignoring the ban.

Source: Department of Fire and Emergency Services, WA

Question 5-10 

TEXT 2

i. Salmonella
Origins

Bowel, intestine of humans and animals [especially chickens). raw foods, untreated water

Onset12-48 hours
Symptoms

Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhoea, fever and headache for 3-21 days

ii. Staphylococcus aureus (Toxin)
OriginsSkin, nose, saliva, bowel of humans
Onset1-8 hours
Symptoms

Diarrhoea, stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting. Last for about 24 hours

iii. Clostridium perfringens
OriginsSoil, bowel, intestine of humans and animals
Onset8-12 hours
Symptoms

Stomach pains, diarrhoea and sometimes nausea and vomiting. Lasts for about 24 hours

iv. Vibrio parahaemolyticus
OriginsDrinking water, shellfish and fish
Onset12-24 hours
Symptoms

Diarrhoea, stomach cramps, sometimes nausea and vomiting. May last for several days

v. Listeria monocytogenes
Origins

Soil, bowel, intestine of humans and animals, raw vegetables, processed foods

Onset2 days to 3 months
SymptomsFlu-like symptoms: fever, headaches and pains. May cause miscarriage and stillbirth, meningitis and septicaemia
vi. Campylobacter
Origins

Raw poultry, raw meats, untreated water, unpasteurised milk; puppies, kittens, wild animals and birds

Onset2-5 days
Symptoms

Diarrhoea, abdominal pain, vomiting, fever and nausea. Last for 2-5 days

Read the information sheet 'The facts about plastic', and answer questions 11-14.

THE FACTS ABOUT PLASTIC

PLASTIC BOTTLES

• It takes less energy to manufacture and transport a plastic sauce bottle than a glass sauce bottle, as plastics are lightweight.

• It takes 125 recycled plastic milk bottles to manufacture one 140-litre wheelie-bin from recycled plastic.

• Over 24 000 tonnes of PET was recovered in Australia last year-that's over 5 7 5 million PET soft drink bottles! Around 18 000 tonnes of these were recycled in Australia-mainly into new soft drink bottles.

• It takes 33 000 plastic soft drink bottles to make one tonne of plastic. 

SAVE OUR OCEANS

• There are about 46 000 pieces of plastic floating in each square mile of our oceans. Discarded plastic has even been found on uninhabited South Pacific islands!

• It is estimated that plastic kills up to 1 million sea birds, 100 000 sea mammals and countless fish each year, with many getting entangled in plastic six-pack rings, plastic strapping and nylon ropes.

• The disposal of plastics into the ocean is prohibited under the international Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).

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Section 1: Questions 1-14

Questions 1-4

Questions 5-10

Questions 11-14

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for your answer.

Just under a quarter of waste plastic comes from 11

Just over two-thirds of recovered PET was made into 12

Plastic bottles are more energy efficient because they are 13

Plastic that is thrown away has been found on 14 where no people Live.

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