Tests Taken: 2186
Published on: 05 May 2019
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The charts show the amount and quality of water supplied to two regions of the world.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant
You should write at least 150 words.
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
The movement of people from the countryside into the cities is happening in many parts of the world, resulting in the problems, especially in cities.
What are the causes of this movement, and how can it be reversed
Give reasons for your answer, and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
You should write at least 250 words.
The following summarises how the provision of water, together with its quality, changed for Australia and Southeast Asia, from 1990 to 2010.
Over the 20 years, all indexes improved apart from the quality of Southeast Asia's water, which actually deteriorated somewhat. Additionally (and predictably for a developed nation), in both years Australia delivered water to a substantially higher proportion of its population, and in a much purer form, although Southeast Asia can take some consolation from the fact that their supply enlarged enough to come respectably close to its southern neighbour.
Looking at Australia. 1990 saw 80% of the nation in receipt of water. Two decades later, this had increased to 97%, which is as close to full delivery as, one would think, was possible for a country of such dimensions. A similar gain was seen in quality, from 70% to 85%. thus scoring a commendable dual success in this important field of public works.
Moving to SE Asia, capacity achieved a healthy advance, from 35% to three quarters of the populace (although falling 22% short of Australia’s near perfect result). However, quality declined from 40% to 35%, which somewhat undermines this region's gains in the provision of this most necessary commodity.
Such results must be considered alongside Southeast Asia’s population surge over this period, compared to Australia’s merely small and incremental growth.
This is a Discussion Question [Tip 4]. It is very important to answer all parts of the question— with reasons andsuggestions. We must also support them, which means we should not just list many reasons and many suggestions [Tip 15]. For faster writers, who can write longer essays, it would be best to write two reasons and two suggestions, extending and supporting them appropriately. However, with a short introduction and conclusion, this would give six paragraphs, which may be difficult. The standard five-paragraph model, used in every essay in this book, may be safer. This means a two/one or one/two number of reasons and suggestions, respectively— although, since the question mentions ‘causes’ [that is, with an ‘s’], the first structure is best [Tip 6, Part Three].
The migration of people from the countryside to cities is a phenomenon occurring in most developed countries, presenting considerable challenges at both ends of this movement. It is worthwhile, therefore, examining its causes, as well as methods to counter this trend, and here I will attempt that.
One reason cities grow is through their provision of employment. Developed societies have long since shifted from the agricultural into the modern and post-modern eras. Obviously, greater amounts of food are produced (catering to the world’s burgeoning population), but mechanisation and monocultural farming have reduced the demand for labour. This is instead offered within the industrial and services sectors, located almost exclusively in urban precincts. Inevitably, this attracts people, in turn attracting more, the end result being mammoth conurbations such as Tokyo or Mexico city.
Another cause of rural exodus is the mental stimulation, needed by our species, which city environments similarly offer. Human beings are innately gregarious and communicative, and the dull and isolated rural existence is inappropriate to such instincts, which instead revel in the multiplicity of sights, sounds, and experiences, offered by the vast teeming metropolises of this world. Examples such as New York, Paris, and London, vibrant and variegated, spring readily to mind, drawing influxes of people at their countryside’s expense.
As for solutions, implementing a sustained and concerted decentralisation policy is one idea. Here, rather than one huge sprawling city (with its intractable problems), to which ‘all roads lead’ (such as Bangkok), industry and its attendant opportunities can be simultaneously developed in satellite townships. Government subsidies and other financial incentives could be used, encouraging companies to relocate to these areas, thus reviving an economic heartbeat and, in theory, a growth in population. Such schemes are taking place in Taipei, with infrastructural development shifting to peripheral counties (yet admittedly, with mixed success).
Although the decline of country communities is sad, it may be inevitable.