READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-16, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
MOBILE PHONES AND DRIVING
A. Though once perceived a luxury cell phones have become a common possession over the last ten years or so. Due to modern day technology and public demand cell phones have been made affordable to most. However, one of the most controversial topics of today is whether or not we should be using our cell phones whilst driving, Does it pose a danger to ourselves and other drivers? Or doesn’t it make any difference to the likelihood of an accident.
B. Several countries around the world have already imposed a national Jaw with heavy infringements. More recently the UK, Australia and Finland have joined the ranks of countries opposing this very hazardous act, with Ireland imposing the harshest penalties on the continent (a third offence can mean 3 months imprisonment). Also in Europe, the Netherlands is fining offenders 2000 Euros and 2 weeks in jail.
C. This dangerous distraction contributes largely to motor vehicle accidents and the statistics are Increasing daily as we continue to take our eyes off the road to call or even more dangerously text. Research by road safety groups suggests speaking on a phone whilst driving increases your chances of an accident, increasing to nine times more likely when texting. Time and again, in study after study replicated across the world, the use of a cell phone by the driver has been proven, beyond any sense of reasonable doubt, to dramatically increase the probability of a motor vehicle crash.
D. In New Zealand, a proposal made by a previous Labour led Government suggests a $50 fine and 27 demerit points for any person using a cell phone whilst driving, although the Ministry of Transport is still preparing a report based on public consultation. Although this is only a pending idea, the government knows this will be a difficult infringement to police but a start needs to be made and people need to understand the consequences of what potentially could happen. It is a common misconception that hands free kits are safe to use, but research conducted by Waikato University has proven that these can be equally as dangerous as hand held phones.
E. On one hand, using a cell phone whilst driving has become an integral part of our lives and is going to be a hard habit to kick. But it has been proven that our reaction time is never fast enough when confronted with a road hazard, but if you are having a conversation at the same time it will slow your reaction time by even more. Most people find it takes 2 and a half seconds to react in a dangerous situation but if you are on the phone you can add another 2 seconds onto that. Your attention is divided; part of you concentrates on your conversation, the other on driving. The demands of die conversation and the road are competing, therefore making it a cognitive distraction as well as physical as you are removing one hand from the steering wheel to hold the phone. On the other hand, an American radio host suggested that banning cell phones whist driving was taking it a step too far, “if we ban cell phones, what’s next? No billboards, coffee drinking, or CD players?” The host agreed that texting whilst driving was a danger but phoning was not.
F. Many people agreed with him in saying that texting was a definite hazard as the act of looking down would lead your eyes off the road. However, doesn’t holding a conversation while driving seems just as distracting as eating food or reaching for a CD? Accidents were happening decades before the cell phone was introduced so should we be taking this matter so seriously?
G. Obviously opinions will differ on this matter, and it will always remain a debatable issue. A long list of countries seems to be following the trend and imposing a law against cell phones on the road, but there is still and even longer list yet to follow. Lack of data leaves uncertain results but it seems research is ongoing and surveys and tests are being carried out on a regular basis to reach some kind of conclusion as to just how dangerous and potentially fatal this habit may be.
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 17-29, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
THE EIFFEL TOWER
- High above the city of Paris the Eiffel Tower looks over the thousands of tourists that visit her each day. One of the greatest sites in Paris, the Eiffel Tower was erected in 1889 for the great Paris Exposition.
- Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, who also designed the Statue of Liberty, put his design forward amongst 700 other designs and Eiffel’s design was chosen collectively without any further thought. The decision was made to build this radical creation and two years later it was completed. Eiffel had originally decided to build the tower in Barcelona, for the Universal Exposition of 1888, but organizers and planners in Barcelona thought it was a bizarre and expensive construction, which did not fit into the design of the city.
- After the design and build of the Eiffel Tower was confirmed for Paris, a petition was signed by over 300 names to fight against the building of this project. These names included Parisian architects, engineers and famous citizens of Paris. Eiffel was heavily castigated for his design and was accused of designing something for its appearance and artistic appeal with no regard to engineering; opponents to the building claimed that the design did not have sufficient stability to withstand the high winds its height would be exposed to. But Eiffel and his team of ex bridge builders understood the importance of wind forces, and the shape of the tower was largely decided by mathematical calculation involving wind resistance.
- French painters, sculptures and writers did not see the beauty in the tower and referred to it as useless and monstrous. However, the Eiffel tower was admired by many notable people (Rousseau was particularly impressed) and construction began in 1887 and was soon completed by the end of 1889. In 1909 it was almost demolished because of the expiration of its 20 year lease but was saved due to its antennas used for telegraphy at the time, With such a difficult beginning to the Tower. It is now internationally recognized and is a symbol of Paris completely accepted and valued by its French Citizens.
- It took 300 workers and 15,000 pieces of iron to complete this massive landmark which now stands at 320 metres tall. With three different levels, the third and highest level offers panoramic views of the City of Paris and sits 276 metres above the ground. Today all three levels of the Eiffel Tower are observatory platforms. The first level offers a souvenir kiosk, gallery and restaurant. The second level offers telescopes, shops and another restaurant with even more spectacular views, the third offers a gallery featuring the history of the Eiffel Tower; a wax reproduction of Gustave Eiffel and his original office restoration. Although stairs are still available, lifts commonly take passengers to all three of these levels.
- On a dear day you can see as far as 67 kilometres across Paris. More than 300,000,000 people have visited the Tower since its completion in 1889 making it one of the most visited monuments in Europe.
- Every seven years, the Eiffel Tower is repainted with 50 to 60 tonnes of paint to protect its framework from rust. So that the Eiffel Tower appears the same colour at each level when viewing it from the ground up, the Tower is painted in three different shades of the same colour. The bottom painted with the darkest brown and the lightest at the top of the tower. At the time of its completion, the Eiffel Tower was the world’s tallest structure until New York’s Chrysler building was completed in 1930.
- Today more than 500 hundred people operate the day to day running of the Eiffel Tower. Each and every day the Eiffel Towers 335 spotlights and 20,000 bulbs create a glistening affect and at night the Eiffel Tower lights up the city of Paris and is a sight not to be missed by anyone. The Tower lights up every evening from sunset to lam, coupled with the light house on the top that sends out its light beams during the same hours. As recognisable as a night time picture of the Tower is, rulings made in the early 1990s actually made copyrighted the illuminated image, Unless it is taken as part of a wider panoramic view, the image is protected under French law. The argument is that the arrangements and display of the lighting constitutes an original visual creation, much as a major work of art, and thus should be entitled to the same degree of protection, The ruling was and remains highly controversial, with concerns that an innocent tourist taking a photograph of the tower at night is potentially breaching copyright.
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 30-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
- In many industrial or manufacturing workplaces, managing hazards is essential for a successful health and safety system. Hazard management is an ongoing process that goes through five different stages, with each step becoming a stage on tire hazard management plan.
- The first step is to identify potential hazards, remembering that hazards are classed as anything that could potentially cause harm not only to people, but also to the organisation. To illustrate, an industrial accident can cause an injury to employees, but can also result in lost production, broken machinery and wasted resources for the company. In many cases, local and national government legislation has strict regulations concerning hazard identification, and in many industries, especially those perceived to be dangerous, severe penalties can be incurred by companies overlooking such hazard identification.
- Having identified the potential hazards, the next step is to assess the hazard; that is, to consider to what extent they are significant. To a degree, this is a subjective aspect of risk management, as what may be seen by one person to be a significant issue can be seen by another to be an acceptable feature of a workplace. To allow for a degree of uniformity, in this stage, hazards are rated using risk assessment tables. These tables work by assigning a point value to three areas. The first is the exposure score, which assesses how often people are exposed to the hazard. If this is a continuous risk which employees face all the time, the score will be high; if the exposure is very rare, the points given will be substantially lower, The score is then multiplied by the likelihood of this hazard causing an injury, ranging from ‘Definite’ (it happens all the time) down to ‘Unlikely’ (it hasn’t happened yet). This is referred to as the chances rating. The sum of the first two scores is again multiplied by the effects score, which considers how serious any accident might be. This can be rated from 1 (requiring minor fist aid) right up to multiple deaths (classed as disaster). All 3 scores then give the final risk assessment result. Generally, a result in excess of 100 points requires caution, but a result of 200 hundred or more is classed as high priority. Certain jobs are, for the most part, permanently gamer scores of over 200 (fire-fighting, for example) and in many cases additional payments, informally known as ‘danger money’, are applied.
- The third step on the hazard management plan is to control hazards that have been identified. There are 3 stages to hazard control. The first aim is to eliminate the hazard – that is, to get rid of it altogether. This can be achieved by removing debris or unnecessary obstacles from the workplace. Often, however, this is not possible, so the next step is to isolate the hazard, to store it out of the way. For example, a cleaning company cannot completely eliminate hazardous chemicals, but they can keep these chemicals locked away until required. Isolating hazards is an ongoing process which requires companies to have very dear and enforced guidelines regarding safe storage of potentially hazardous products.
- If the hazards cannot be isolated, then the aim must be to minimise the risk. This is achieved through staff training in safe handling techniques and best practices, as well as the provision of personal protection equipment (PPE). PPE commonly includes items such as gloves, overalls and footwear with steel reinforced areas.
- The fourth and fifth steps on a hazard management plan are connected – to record and review’ the hazard. The recording is done in the hazard register, and this register is continually reviewed to ensure best practices are maintained. If a severe accident does occur in the workplace, it is the hazard register that investigators often first turn to, to see if the issue had previously been reported and if so what the company bad done about the hazard.
- It is worth noting that since more rigorous application of hazard management systems, workplace accidents have experienced a significant decline in many industries previously identified as ‘high risk’.
Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs A – G.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B – G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number i-x in boxes 1-6.
|List of Headings
|Impact of mobile phones in hazards
|Further research required
|Evidence from around the globe
|Challenges of enforcement
|Global agreement on penalties
|Risks of talking to passengers
|Balancing the risks
1. Paragraph B
2. Paragraph C
3. Paragraph D
4. Paragraph E
5. Paragraph F
6. Paragraph G
Look at the following list of statement (questions 7-11) based on ‘Mobile phones and driving’
Match the statement with the correct person or department A-E.
|Ministry of Transport
|Road safety groups
|American radio host
|The New Zealand government
7. is currently putting together feedback from the general public.
8. proposed specific penalties for mobile phone use while driving.
9. statistically proven the higher likelihood of an accident.
10. believes any use of a phone while driving has potential risks.
11. speaking on the phone is an overrated risk.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?
In boxes 12-16 an your answer sheet write
|if the statement agrees with the information
|if the statement contradicts the information
|If there is no information on this
12. The law in Ireland regarding mobile phone use while driving is the world’s most serious.
13. According to research conducted by road safety groups, speaking on a phone makes an accident nine times more likely.
14. Reaction times in an emergency are doubled if the driver is using a mobile.
15. Eating while driving is statistically as dangerous as using a mobile.
16. More research is required to form a clearer conclusion.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 17- 19 on your answer sheet
Complete the summary using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from Reading Passage 2 for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 20 – 22 on your answer sheet
Despite some opposition, construction of the tower was concluded by
It was almost dismantled in the early 1900s as its had expired, but was kept because of an used for telegraphic transfers.
Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write your answer in boxes 23 – 29 on your answer sheet.
Which famous person championed the construction of the Eiffel Tower?
On what floor of the tower can gifts be bought?
What is the most common way of accessing the three floors?
Protection from what requires the tower to be painted so often?
The Tower is painted using three shades of brown so that it appears what?
What was taller than the Eiffel Tower in 1930?
When are the illuminations switched on?
Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your glower in questions 30 and 31 on your answer sheet.
The 5 stages of the managing hazards are put together as what?
Damaged machinery and discarded resources are two examples of hazards to what?
Complete the summary using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from Reading Passage 3 for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 32 – 37 on your answer sheet
To mathematical calculate risk assessment, stages need to be calculated.
The exposure score considers the amount of time employees spend working near the hazard.
The then measures the probability of an accident, ranging from not likely to
The results are then by each other, and then again by the degree of seriousness of an accident. The highest ‘effect’ score is given when more than one person is killed (this is rated as a ).
When calculated, a result of 200 or more is considered
Complete the flowchart
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from Reading Passage 3 for each answer.
|1st step is to if possible
|Locate the hazard ( e.g. it out of the way)
|hazard by wearing protective clothing and following safety training