|1. 23rd July||21. definition|
|2. HEPWORTH||22. breakdown|
|3. 07968 355630||23. private|
|4. electricity||24. Europe|
|5. drain||25. destinations|
|6. SEW 47||26. competition|
|7. swimming pool||27. B EITHER E|
|8. laundry||28. B EITHER E|
|9. litter||29. B EITHER D|
|10. shower key||30. B EITHER D|
|11. E||31. forest|
|12. A||32. Australia|
|13. D||33. clothing|
|14. F||34. fossil evidence|
|15. B||35. unknown|
|16. C||36. human hair|
|17. A||37. protection|
|18. packaging||38. toy lions|
|19. environment||39. long dark|
|20. creative||40. status symbol|
|Level||Band||Listening Score||Reading Score|
Legend: Academic word (?) New word
M: Hi. Lake Pane Campground. Can I help you?
W: Oh. hi. yes. um. I wonder if we could book a site on your campground?
M: Sure. My computer's down at the moment, so I just need to get a form. OK - how many nights would you like to stay for?
W; Um. well, ideally, we’d like tu stay for five
M: Five nights. OK. So when are you planning to arrive?
W: Well, we'll be travelling around the area from mid-July and we think well be at the lake by about the 24th.
M: Let’s see. July's a busy time. We could probably fit you in. but to be honest, if you want five nights, it would be
better to get here a day earlier We've got a big group coming at the end of the month.
W: OK - the 23rd's fine . We weren't sure so .
M: Great. Do you just want somewhere to park and pitch a tent, or do you have an RV?
W: An RV?
M: Yeah - you know, a recreational vehicle , a campervan.
W: Oh, right yes. we're driving a van. so .
M: OK - that's fine. So. um. what name is it. please?
W: It's Hepworth. that's H-E-P-W-O-R-T-H.
M: OK. thanks. I've heard that name before.
W: Well, it's quite common in England - particularly in Yorkshire. That's where we're from
M: I was going to ask if you were in the UK. It's a really good line, isn't it?
M: Would this be your contact number?
W: Yes - it's 07968 355630 .
M: Great, thanks.
W: Do you want my home number as well?
M: No - that's fine.
M: We supply a number of facilities. I don't know if you're familiar with the way campgrounds work here
W: It would be good if you could explain.
M: Well, you're coming in the RV. so would you like to hook up to our electricity ?
W: Oh. yes. please.
M: You can also attach your vehicle to the 'water taps here.
W: I hope it's all easy to do!
M: Yeah - you just plug into the electricity and switch on the water. The people who hire out the RVs will explain it all.
W: OK - and what about waste water?
M: Sure - you can have a site with a sewer - or I think you guys call it a drain - that's a bit extra. Not all campgrounds have that facility, you see.
W: Fine, we'll have it. So what's the total and
M: OK - I've allocated you a site, so you need to note the code down.
W: Right. I'll just get a pen.
M: Most of our sites are coded using letters arid numbers . . EW or SEW
M: So yours is one of the SEW ones and it's number 47 .
W: Got that.
M: That's the area that has all the requirements you need.
W: Is it easy to find when you get there?
M: What time will you be arriving?
W: I'm not sure, but it could be quite late.
M: OK. so the reception could be closed. We close at six.
W: Oh dear.
M: It's OK - I'll tell you where to go. As you come in the campground entrance, you'll see our office.
M: Drive past the front door there's another office next to ours. that's the business office. Yeah, and there's a pool behind that.
W: OK - it would be good to have a swim!
M: it's open till eight, so feel free to use it. Keep going past all those . . to the end of the track. At the top. you'll come to a .. . at the very end. there's a laundry .
M: Turn left at the laundry and you'll see your own site straight ahead of you. "They're all clearly labelled.
W: That sounds easy enough.
M: Just before you hang up . um we've had a few problems with campers with. um. stuff left lying around.
M: Well, it may be an oversight, but we do ask our visitors to take away all their litter
W: Of course. Otherwise someone has to clear it up!
M: That's right. Also, in the morning . you know . we do have washrooms, and once the reception's open, you'll be able to get a key for the shower .
M: You can keep it while you're on the site, but could you return it when you leave?
W: I'll make sure we get it back to you.
M: Yeah - otherwise we don't have enough to go around.
W: OK - well, thank you very much. See you soon!
M: Yeah - bye.
Narrator: You will hear someone talking on the radio about colours.
Presenter: Well it's a 'colourful' start to the day on DB Radio. Kathy, what have you got to tell us?
Kathy: Thanks. Briony. I thought I'd talk about two areas today where colour plays a huge role in our lives - and they are food and fashion. So. let’s start with food and more specifically, food colouring In many parts of the world today, people like the food they purchase to be the ‘right* colour. So if we buy tinned or canned vegetables, such as green peas, it’s highly likely that the contents have been enhanced through the use of colouring agents. Peas are naturally green, you might say. But they may not be green all over or they may not be the most pleasing shade of green. So a natural additive or two can quickly sort that out, just as it can the perfectly minty green ice cream that we buy our children.
Children are a big market for food and are easily tempted by colour Breakfast cereals, for instance, that come in various shades of brown are often altered using caramel, a natural brown food colouring derived from caramelised sugar. This also gives the cereals a shiny, mouth-watering appeal which is hugely tempting for consumers In fact, natural food colouring goes back a long way.
One of the oldest - or perhaps the most well known natural food colours - is red or ’cochineal’, named after the insects used to make it Aztec Indians created a crimson dye from the bodies of crushed beetles. Producing cochineal is very costly, so it was unpopular with consumers for some years. But health scares linking artificial red dyes to cancer have meant that more shoppers are buying cochineal again Now. there’s one food colour that manufacturers use with a certain amount of caution and that’s blue. Our ancestors believed that food this colour was dangerous. If you think about it. very' few naturally occurring foods are blue, and there is little demand fo' the colouring. In fact, if you're trying to lose weight, experts suggest that you put your food on a blue plate. It's almost guaranteed to kill your appetite.
OK, let’s look at another area where colour is a key issue.
If you say you've bough 1 something new to wear, often the first question people wi I ask is "What colour is it?' Yet the answer doesn't necessarily indicate that the colour was your preferred choice. As consumers, we have to balance how we feel in certain colours with what is fashionable at the time. You think you’ve suddenly developed a desire to wear orange, whereas, n fact, the shops are full of it. and you've ended up buying an orange shirt - that may or may not suit you - simply because it's ‘this season’s colour’. Well, the interesting thing here is that ‘colourists', as they’re called in the business, have to look ahead and say what colour models will be wearing in fashion shows several years in advance. To get this right, they have to consider how long it will take to produce the cloth dyes, they have to set up deals with suppliers, and bear in mind the constant changes ir consumer taste. So what may seem to be this season's colour has actually been agreed years before.
So what do we think about the colours we wear? Like everything, our tastes alter with age. In general, though, we think that black makes people look and feel thinner while red does the opposite: white goes with everything, whereas yellow is harder to match, and nothing alters the fact that there are certain colours that we never feel comfortable wearing.
And finally - whether it's food or fashion, anyone in the business field knows that it isn’t enough to get a product the right colour. Even the packaging has to be carefully designed in order to maximise sales. It's no good, for instance, wrapping an item in brown paper if you want it to stand out. Much better to go for eye-catching colours or, in fact, in today’s world, green has become very popular because it promotes the view dial the company cares about the environment In addition to their products, businesses also have to think about the people who come up with the ideas. If you surround your workers with drab colours, they'll come up with equally dull ideas This isn't rocket science We used to associate red with creativity in business, but it turns out - according to a recent study - that blue is a much better stimulus for creative though!. So the colour’s not all bad!
Tutor: Hi Nils, hi Eva. Come in and sit down. You wanted to talk about your research paper, is that right?
Nils: Yes. we’ve drawn up an outline for the introduction and done some preliminary interviews.
T: And how did that go?
Eva: We've come across some interesting findings.
T: OK - let’s go through what you've done so far. What's the subject?
N: Right, so we're doing our paper on international student mobility.
E: We're looking at the overall picture - you know, where overseas students are going in the world to study and why ... and we think that picture's changing.
T: Sounds interesting
E: The first thing we've looked at is numbers, and as part of that. um. how many students there are in total who are studying outside their own country
N: That seems easy It looks like it's around three million.
E: Yeah, but the problem is that the definition of the term ’international student' vanes across countries.
N: Yeah, and because of that, the figure could be much higher.
T: I see.
E: Our next question was... well, we wanted to know what the breakdown of numbers is around the world - you know, how many students go where But we're not sure how accurate those figures are either
N: Yeah, even though it's the fastest-growing sector of higher education, some ministries don't include the students at private institutions in their count.
E: Mm. it's quite frustrating. Anyway, um. next we wanted to know where the majority of students come from.
N: This is something that's changing quite rapidly.
T: Well, that would be an interesting point. What's changing?
E: Most people know that the largest group of international students comes from East Asia
N: But what we hadn't realised is that figures for the US have quadrupled over the past 20 years, and a lot more students from Europe are also now studying abroad.
N: Yeah - we need to look at some more figures there.
E: Lastly, we looked at the countries that students go to - and the trends there.
N: Yeah, our question really was about the destinations of international students and whether they're changing.
E: And they are! Countries I ke China are providing more higher education opportunities for their own students and for students from places like Britain.
N: This means that higher education is becoming more well, there are high levels of competition .
E: But with that there's also a spirit of exchange - it’s not so one-sided any more.
T: So you said you'd done some preliminary interviews?
E: Yes - we thought we'd start by talking to some of the international students in our city.
N: Just to help us design the web interviews we plan to do.
E: We wanted to find out if there are common factors that students consider to be important when they choose an overseas course.
N: Obviously, these will vary across the international student population, but we thought some, like cost, might be significant.
E: Surprisingly, a lot of students said they left finances to their parents, but they did want to know that their university was a good one.
N: They said they decided about this by talking to friends at home - not by looking at how many degrees or publications the staff had.
E: That’s right But they were interested in the degrees they were taking and whether when they finished their course they'd get a good job.
T: OK. What else did you ask them about?
N: What sort of incentives they think source countries should offer students - to encourage them to return home after they've graduated.
T: A very interesting question What did you find?
E: Well, many said that if they chose to get another qualification, they'd stay or move to a third country to do this.
N: Yeah, so there doesn't seem to be much point in offering scholarships to get them to return home to study.
T: What about grants for research?
N: Post-graduation, that was much more popular, especially if the system let them compete individually for these.
E: And many students were keen to go home and get a job if they could be sure they’d have a good income and lifestyle.
N: For example, they felt that the government should perhaps offer tax exemptions so that they could afford to live in a nice area.
T: Some countries have created special work zones for incoming graduates, particularly in the science field.
N: Yeah, and some of these include apartment blocks as well.
E: Mmm. But as many of the students we talked to were Arts students, this didn't seem to appeal to them.
T: OK. well, I think that's a pretty good start, let's just...
Lecturer: As part of this series of lectures on wildlife. I'm going to talk today about lions, about their history and about some of the work that's been done with lions in recent years.
When we think of lions, we tend to think of Africa, as this is the only area of the world where they still exist in the wild, apart from some small groups in the Indian forest of Gir. But you might be surprised to know that lions were once virtually everywhere on the planet. In fact, if you go back 500.000 years, there were more lions roaming the world than dogs or monkeys. You could bump into one in London. Moscow or LA. in every part of Africa, apart from the desert; in fact, the only continents that were and have always been lion-free were the frozen plains of Antarctica - which were obviously much too inhospitable for this jungle creature - and Australia , though there is plenty of bushland there.
So what happened? Well, we know for certain that as recently as the 1800s - dial's just 200 years ago - Itons were being hunted to extinction in sorre parts of the world, sometimes just for sport. But long before that, about 10.000 years ago. lions started to disappear from various comers of the globe. Scientists believe there was the usual battle with our human ancestors for food, in the form of other, smaller creatures. wi:h many lions also being killed to make clothing
So lions may have gone from Europe, but there are plenty of prehistoric paintings to witness their presence And they reveal some interesting facts.
Let’s take a look These cave paintings were found in France - the outlines are slightly blurred because they were hand-drawn using materials like charcoal or ochre. But the images are still very clear and the interesting thing is that, as you can see. in the past, lions were actually a lot bigger than they are now - they cone up to this man's waist! You may think the size has been exaggerated because of the man's fear, but there's plenty of fossil evidence that supports the larger proportions these animals once had. when you compare them with the African lions of the present day. The other curious thing here is that none of the male lions seer in cave paintings like this have the long, black or blond hair around their necks and faces that is called a mane. Now. the lion’s mane is another interesting feature of these creatures.
No one seems to know much about it - there are none in cave paintings like these - and. even today, the date when the lion's mane first appeared is unknown , and there is disagreement among scientists as to what its purpose is A lot of work has gone into researching this. If you think about it. no other cat has a mane. So why does a lion have one? And a lion’s mane can be various lengths and colours, not unlike human hair : some are long, some are short; they can be black, brown or blond and they can be in good or bad condition. What scientists do know is that when lions fight, they tend to go for each other's necks and. at first, this led some researchers to believe that the mane acts as a form of protection during battles with neighbouring prides. That may be partly true. But not everyone agrees it’s the whole explanation. One leading lion expert believes that manes are more to do with attracting females and scaring off males, and he's run an experiment to test this theory out.
What he did was to make five toy lions and put them in the lions’ territory. He made sure they all looked different - some had long, light-coloured manes, some had short dark ones and so on. He put these in paces where they were sure to be seen, and for a while the lions ignored them. But eventually they went up to the models. And, well, the female lions were attracted to the ones that had long, dark manes. The male lions weren't, they just kept away from them - what interested them were the ones with short, blond manes. They approached these and bit or clawed them quite aggressively.
When the results of this study were compared with the real-world situation, it was found that lions with long dark manes tend to be the healthiest, while ones with short, blond manes are more likely to be injured or sick. Thus, the team concluded that a lion’s mane is effectively a status symbol ; that it shows how strong and healthy the lion is and. as a result, makes the lion more attractive to females.