|1. B||21. D|
|2. D||22. A|
|3. C||23. F|
|4. E||24. B|
|5. picture||25. E|
|6. magnetic strip||26. existing injury|
|7. signature||27. damage|
|8. bank logo||28. exercise plan|
|9. date||29. movement|
|10. chip||30. personal trainer|
|11. eyeball||31. body art|
|12. lifestyle||32. weather|
|13. disability||33. animal tracks|
|14. background||34. storytelling|
|15. mood||35. iron oxide|
|16. lighting||36. 18000 years|
|17. B OR E IN EITHER ORDER||37. powder|
|18. B OR E IN EITHER ORDER||38. bush honey|
|19. B OR D IN EITHER ORDER||39. canvas|
|20. B OR D IN EITHER ORDER||40. musical instruments|
|Level||Band||Listening Score||Reading Score|
Legend: Academic word (?) New word
So I thought that I’d first say a few words to help orientate you round the banking system As new arrivals, one of the first things you’ll want to do is open a bank account. This will allow you to receive your money transfers, pay your bills by direct debit and all sorts of other things that will make your life easier.
One mistake I think a lot of people make is to just wander into the first bank they see, thinking that al! banks are much the same, and ask to open an account, in actual fact, they all offer something slightly different, and some of the differences can affect you quite seriously For example, for those of you who are studying at the university here, you may have noticed that there are two or three banks with branches near the university:
- Great Western and Moneysafe, for example - but only one
- Finley's - actually has an office inside one of the university buildings. For the others, you’d have a bit more of a walk
Some banks give away free gifts: Evergreen offers a laptop to people who keep a balance of more than £5,000 for nine months; with International Union, you’ll get a phone when you open your first account; and one or two others, like Moneysafe and Northern Star, offer mountain bikes or vacuum cleaners if you put money on deposit, that sort of thing.
More seriously, you should look at the sort of interest rates the bank will offer you, both if you need an overdraft or loan, or if you're hoping to get some interest on your savings. At the moment, Northern Star offers the highest rate of interest to savers, but Great Western will lend money at a lower percentage than normal to people registered on higher education courses. So you can see it really is worth looking around.
Another thing it’s a good idea to enquire about are bank charges. Again, they're not all the same. Some charge the same across the board, such as Evergreen, Finley's and Northern Star, but Moneysafe actually say that if you're in credit, your account won't cost a thing - though, just like the others, as soon as you go into the red, their prices become pretty steep.
Of course, one of the things you'll want as soon as you open your account is a debit card, so I thought I’d give you a little tour of these essential little pieces of plastic, if you look at the slide, you’ll see that on the front at the top they tend to have either the name of the bank or the company which has issued the card. Then a bit more than halfway down on the right, you'll see this hologram with a picture which appears to move as you move the card around in front of you This sort of detail makes cards very hard to forge, although, like with anything else, there are people out there who'll try Then, on the back there's another of those sophisticated high-tech details, and that's the magnetic strip , which is this black thing going from one side to the other, which contains certain coded details. While we're on the back, you'll see another lighter strip with three numbers at the end. That's your security number, which they always ask for when you use the card for an internet purchase or over the phone, and it also, has a space where you, as the card holder, should put your signature so that shop assistants can compare it when you sign a payment slip.
Going back to the front, in the bottom right-hand corner, you'll usually find the bank logo and just to the left of it, there's your own name in raised print.
One thing you always need for telephone and internet sales is the expiry date , and on the card in front of you, that’s just above the cardholder’s name Finally, in most places, you have to insert your card into a machine and key in your PIN. Just above the card number on the left, you can see a chip , and that chip is there to verify that the PIN you have entered is correct.
Narrator: You will hear someone talking about a colour exhibition.
Announcer: Now. I'd like to welcome onto our show today Darren Whitlock, who's going to tell us about a very vibrant exhibition.
Darren: Thanks. Melanie. Yes. in fact, it's an exhibition called 'Eye for colour'. It’s packed with hands-on exhibits and interactive displays and it explores the endless ways in which colour shapes our world.
Now. there are 40 exhibits altogether that come under six main sections. Sadly. I haven't got time to tell you about them all today, so let me just give you a taste of what's on offer.
So to start off. there's a section simply entitled 'Seeing colour', which is. well - as the title suggests - about how we do just that. And it’s a good starting point, because basically, you look at the museum gallery through a giant eyeball that’s standing on a circular foot What you don't know is that this houses a 32" camera and screen, and the overall effect of these is quite amazing.
Another section that’s very interesting is called 'Colour in culture'. Here, there are a number of activities designed to illustrate the powerful links that exist between colour and certain aspects of our lifestyle , and this is done through a range of images and objects. You can visit the color cafe that contains meals that really make you question how conditioned you are. How hungry do you feel you're faced with a plate of pink and green fried eggs and blue sausages, for example? This section also includes activities that give visitors some idea of what it's like to view the world with a visual disability , which is something that many people have to do.
Then there's a 'Colour in nature' section, designed to illustrate the many amazing colours that we see everywhere around us - from rainbows to autumn leaves - and to give us an idea of what its like surviving in the external environment. So you can try camouflaging yourself. This really is one for the kids - dressing up ir a suit and then selecting a background where, to all intents and purposes, you disappear. And you can look at the world through the eyes of a dog or fish .. what do these creatures really see?
I’d recommend ending the trip with a visit to the ' mood room', which explores the influence of colour on the way we feel. Here, you can lie back and listen to music as a projector subtly alters the lighting in the room and with it. the atmosphere . How does each colour affect your emotions? You'll be surprised!
Now while the exhibition's been running, the organisers have carried out a study of the favourite colours of their younger visitors. Over 2.600 children have responded to this, and there were lots and lots of colours to choose from, so the scores weren't high for each individual colour, even if the colours were - like blue - of average popularity. Clearly, the bold colours were the winners. Though purple, which I would have expected to be a high scorer, had just 1.73% of the votes, unlike deep pink, which came next to top. In the middle ground along with purple - which was still pretty popular compared to others - was lime green - the first shade of green to be anywhere near the top. One two-year-old commented that red was die only colour she knew, which is perhaps why that was more popular with children than anything else Needless to say, all the tans and beiges came near the bottom. In fact, the lighter the colours, the less popular they were - even the light pinks.
So why did the kids go for these striking colours? As adults, it's all about clothes what we think suits us or is fashionable. But these youngsters are looking outward more and they go for colours that hit them that they pick out over and above the rest It's less to do with how they feel - whether it calms them down or whatever - and more about immediate impact. And. of course, there are associations with football that led a lot of both boys and girls to go for particular colours - in fact, more children seemed to comment on this than anything else, whereas adults would be more likely to go for something worn by someone they really like. So. all in all. it says a lot about.
Steve: Good morning, guys, come on in.
Mike: Thanks. Steve it's good of you to spare us some of your time.
Flo: Yeah - we really appreciate it.
S: That's OK. So you’re studying sports science, are you?
M: Yeah - we’ve only just started our course, actually - but as I explained on the phone, um. we have this seminar to do on sports injuries and we thought, who better to talk to than someone like yourself?
S: Fine. OK. So what would you like to know?
F: Well, we thought we'd start by asking you about some of the treatments and services you offer here at the clinic.
S: OK - well, as you know, physiotherapists deal with a whole range of different ’problem areas’ in the body.
M: Yeah - what sort of techniques do you use to help people? I mean. I know you use massage - and I understand that’s a key form of treatment ..
S: Yeah. Well, we call it ‘manual therapy', you know, because it's a hands-on treatment and it just involves manipulating the soft tissue around a joint to relieve stiffness and pain.
F: Is that something that a lot of people come here for?
S: Um - well, v/e generally decide what's best for the
individual. This treatment can hurt sometimes, but it gets results more quickly that anything else.
F: And is that true whatever the injury?
S: For sports injuries, generally, yes. But it doesn't stop there
you have to do other things as well.
M: I've heard of something called ‘stability training’. Do you do that?
S: Definitely. This is something that’s designed to improve overall posture and body shape.
M: So it's for the back and neck?
F: I think I’ve heard of this . . it works on everything and gives you more power.
S: Yeah this is important - we improve your overall form, and that’s quite good if you’re tired or a bit weak.
F: Do you use any aids to boost performance?
S: Occasionally we recommend a pad or block for a sports shoe, but not often.
M: What about electrical equipment?
S: We do sometimes use electrotherapy, which is supposed to stimulate the body to repair itself.
F: So that's actually using a small electrical charge?
S: Yes. but there’s growing evidence that the effect is limited.
M: So I guess you don’t use it much?
S: No - we lend to avoid it most of the time.
M: I eeo What if people don't have an injury but just want to get better at their sport? I mean, sometimes people know they do something wrong when they swing a golf club,
S: Ah - then we film them and show them exactly what they do. It’s called video analysis.
F: That must be really helpful.
S: It’s what everyone asks for it outstrips all our other services - because it's great for so many activities not just sporting ones.
M: Can you help people with sedentary activities?
S: Absolutely - we offer workstation analysis because so many people have asked us for it.
F: Yeah. I spend hours on my laptop, and as the day goes on. my posture gets worse and worse!
S: That's why we tend to suggest that people come at the end of the day for this.
M: I guess the problem is that everyone’s built differently ..
I think we both need some help there.
F: That was really interesting. So what happens when someone comes to your clinic?
S: Well, let's imagine you're the patient.
S: A common situation will be that you sustained an injury, say. a year ago. So it's not new . so you turn up with what we call an ' existing injury ’
F: Right like a sprained my ankle
S: Exactly that's a typical one.
F: OK. and I've been to the doctor, and he's sent me to the hospital for an X-ray. and then I've been prescribed a cream or even painkillers.
S: You’ve been through that medical route
F: OK. And I had to rest it for a while, of course, and that meant not doing any sport. So I've come to you because I'm fed up. basically.
S: Yes - you need to get the joint moving again. So what we would do first is to assess the damage to the joint area.
F: I guess there's a whole range of problems that it could be. and some are more serious than others.
S: And we can't afford to make mistakes. Now. once we know what the problem is. we select a treatment - perhaps one that we talked about earlier - plus vie design an exercise plan for you.
F: That's great if you stick to it.
S: Yes. that's the hard part for patients because they don’t have time or they get bored So we ask them to come back regularly we make appointments - and we monitor the movement in the joint each time.
F: And you expect that to work?
S: Yes. and it usually does - quite quickly, in fact, and then we can go on to rehabilitation.
F: You mean getting them back into the sporting activity they used to do?
S: That's right. We have a fully equipped gym and we devise a training plan - well, a personal trainer does that, and they oversee the programme for at least a couple of months and make sure the patient carries it out
F: It sounds really thorough. That's great. Steve, thanks.
We're going to have a look today at Aboriginal art and painting, which actually dates back 60.000 years, making it one of the oldest art traditions in the world. Now. as long as indigenous people have been living in Australia, they've been creating different types of art So let's start by having a look at some examples of ancient art. It includes things like, as you can see here, rock paintings, bark paintings .. even some sand drawings like this have been found. Then there's the whole area of body art . which is so important for ceremonial practice, and lastly, here are some examples of decorative art on weapons and tools.
The oldest art examples today are the rock paintings because, obviously, rock is more durable than other materials and so the art has been preserved. In fact, most of this work is inside caves - largely because there, it's been sheltered, hasn't been destroyed by the weather , while the paintings on outside rock surfaces have often been washed away over the years. Now. there are enormous variations in the style of Aboriginal rock art. depending on its age and location. Dot paintings are one of the best-known visual art forms of Aboriginal culture in which a surface is covered in small dots to reveal symbols Typical ones include arrows like this - here's a water hole, and these are animal tracks . You get to see both the abstract dot paintings and more naturalistic art... you get both in rock art of various ages. As the ancient Aborigines didn't have a written language, the key purpose of much of this rock art was storytelling , which has had a great significance for younger generations.
Let's move on to look at the materials. Er. whatever they were painting, traditionally Aboriginal people all over Australia used pigment, such as ochre, to make paint. Ochre's very finely textured natural rock and. um. well, they used this because ochre is plentiful across most of Australia. It’s coloured by iron oxide , which is the mineral that makes a lot of Australian outback soil - in places such as Ayers Rock - what is known as 'Uluru red'. Uluru being the Aboriginal name for Ayers Rock. However, depending on the exact conditions under which it formed, the shade can be anything from yellow to orange, red, purple or dark brown. Today, ochre occurs in many archaeological sites, and archaeologists at one site have discovered what appears to be an artist’s palette of ochres, dating back 18000 years .
Preparing the ochre paints was time-consuming work. First, the appropriate rocks had to be found and collected. Then the rock had to be broken up and ground into a powder , and that had to be mixed with some sort of fluid to bind it into paint. Nowadays, the binder most commonly used is professional artist’s acrylic binder, but in the past. Aboriginal people used things like tree sap. or something similar like bush honey .
Other fluids must also have been used but wouldn't have held paint on rock or a piece of bark for thousands of years, so sadly those paintings would have been lost So. how have things changed? Well, modern Aboriginal is a mixture of the old and the new. Things changed in the 1970s really when Aboriginal people from many different parts of Australia, particularly south Australia, central and northern Australia, took up acrylic painting and began to paint on canvas
Taking a modern approach has had many advantages. It saves artists a great deal of time, and they can still choose to use the traditional yellowish-reddish-brownish colours if they wish to. But perhaps the most important fact is that, unlike bark and rock paintings, the modern paintings are easy to sell. In fact, painting on canvas has given Aboriginal people an opportunity to showcase their art to the world and keep their ancient culture alive. Modern Aboriginal art. particularly dot painting, has taken off and started selling on a big scale internationally. Aboriginal art can also be found on pottery and various musical instruments like dirigeridoos and clapping sticks. Together, these have become some of the most popular souvenirs in Australia. Their artists, like other artists in the world, are now able to earn a living doing something they are passionate about.