|1. promotion||19. B|
|2. unplanned purchases||20. NOT GIVEN|
|3. fruit and vegetables||21. YES|
|4. popular items||22. NOT GIVEN|
|5. NOT GIVEN||23. NO|
|6. TRUE||24. F|
|7. NOT GIVEN||25. C|
|8. NOT GIVEN||26. E|
|9. FALSE||27. A|
|10. FALSE||28. A|
|11. frozen ingredients||29. D|
|12. appetites||30. B|
|13. ready meals||31. C|
|14. C||32. C|
|15. B||33. D|
|16. A||34. A OR C IN EITHER ORDER|
|17. D||35. A OR C IN EITHER ORDER|
|Level||Band||Listening Score||Reading Score|
Legend: Academic word (?) New word
Supermarkets take great care over the way the goods they sell are arranged. This is because they know a lot about how to persuade people to buy things.
When yon enter a supermarket, it takes some time for the mind to get into a shopping mode. This is why the area immediately inside the entrance of a supermarket is known as the ‘decompression zone’. People need to slow down and take stock of the surroundings, even if they are regulars. Supermarkets do not expect to sell much here, so it tends to be used more for promotion . So the large items piled up here are designed to suggest that there are bargains further inside the store, and shoppers are not necessarily expected to buy them. Walmart, the world’s biggest retailer, famously employs ‘greeters’ at the entrance to its stores. A friendly welcome is said to cut shoplifting. It is harder to steal from nice people.
Immediately to the left in many supermarkets is a ‘chill zone’, where customers can enjoy browsing magazines, books and DVDs. This is intended to tempt unplanned purchases and slow customers down. But people who just want to do their shopping quickly will keep walking ahead, and the first thing they come to is the fresh fruit and vegetables section. However, for shoppers, this makes no sense. Fruit and vegetables can be easily damaged, so they should be bought at the end , not the beginning, of a shopping trip. But psychology is at work here: selecting these items makes people feel good, so they feel less guilty about reaching for less healthy food later on .
Shoppers already know that everyday items, like milk, arc invariably placed towards the back of a store to provide more opportunity to tempt customers to buy things which are not on their shopping list. This is why pharmacies are also generally at the back. But supermarkets know shoppers know this, so they use other tricks, like placing popular items halfway along a section so that people have to walk all along the aisle looking for them. The idea is to boost ‘dwell time’: the length of time people spend in a store.
Having walked to the end of the fruit-and-vegetable aisle, shoppers arrive at counters of prepared food, the fishmonger, the butcher and the deli. Then there is the in-store bakery, which can be smelt before it is seen. Even small supermarkets now use in store bakeries. Mostly these bake pre-prepared items and frozen ingredients which have been delivered to the supermarket previously, and their numbers have increased, even though central bakeries that deliver to a number of stores are much more efficient. They do it for the smell of freshly baked bread, which arouses people’s appetites and thus encourages them to purchase not just bread but also other food, including ready meals .
Retailers and producers talk a lot about the ‘moment of truth’. This is not a philosophical idea, but the point when people standing in the aisle decide to buy something and reach to get it. At the instant coffee section, for example, branded products from the big producers are arranged at eye level while cheaper ones are lower down, along with the supermarket’s own label products.
But shelf positioning is fiercely fought over, not just by those trying to sell goods, but also by those arguing over how best to manipulate shoppers. While many stores reckon eye level is the top spot, some think a little higher is better. Others think goods displayed at the end of aisles sell the most because they have the greatest visibility. To be on the right-hand side of an eye-level selection is often considered the very best place, because most people are right-handed and most people’s eyes drift rightwards. Some supermarkets reserve that for their most expensive own-label goods.
Scott Bearse, a retail expert with Deloitte Consulting in Boston, Massachusetts, has led projects observing and questioning tens of thousands of customers about how they feel about shopping. People say they leave shops empty- handed more often because they are ‘unable to decide’ than because prices are too high , says Mr Bearse. Getting customers to try something is one of the best ways of getting them to buy, adds Mr Bearse. Deloitte found that customers who use fitting rooms in order to try on clothes buy the product they are considering at a rate of 8 j% compared with 58 % for those that do not do so.
Often a customer struggling to decide which of two items is best ends up not buying either. In order to avoid a situation where a customer decides not to buy either product, a third ‘decoy’ item, which is not quite as good as the other two, is placed beside them to make the choice easier and more pleasurable . Happier customers are more likely to buy.
adapted from The Economis
An astonishingly intricate project is being undertaken to restore a legendary theatrical dress , Angela Wintle explains.
On December 28th, 1888, the curtain rose on a daring new stage revival of Shakespeare’s Macbeth at the Lyceum Theatre in London. Topping the bill, playing Lady Macbeth, a main character in the play, was Ellen Terry. She was the greatest and most adored English actress of the age. But she didn't achieve this devotion through her acting ability alone, She knew the power of presentation and carefully cultivated her image . That first night was no exception. When she walked on stage for the famous banqueting scene, her appearance drew a collective gasp from the audience.
She was dressed in the most extraordinary clothes ever to have graced a British stage: a long, emerald and sea-green gown with tapering sleeves, surmounted by a velvet cloak, which glistened and sparkled eerily in the limelight. Yet this was no mere stage trickery. The effect had been achieved using hundreds of wings from beetles . The gown - later named the ‘Beetlewing dress’ became one of the most iconic and celebrated costumes of the age.
Terry was every bit as remarkable as her costumes. At 31, she became a leading lady at the Lyceum Theatre and for two decades, she set about bringing culture to the masses.
The productions she worked on were extravagant and daring. Shakespeare’s plays were staged alongside blood-and-thunder melodramas and their texts were ruthlessly cut. Some people were critical, but they missed the point. The innovations sold tickets and brought new audiences to see masterpieces that they would never otherwise have seen .
However, it was a painter who immortalised her. John Singer Sargent had been so struck by Terry's appearance at that first performance that he asked her to model for him, and his famous portrait of 1889, now at the Tate Gallery in London, showed her with a glint in her eye, holding a crown over her flame-red hair. But while the painting remains almost as fresh as the day it was painted, the years have not been so kind to the dress . Its delicate structure, combined with the cumulative effects of time, has meant it is now in an extremely fragile condition. Thus, two years ago, a fundraising project was launched by Britain's National Trust 1 to pay for its conservation.
It turned to textile conservator Zenzie Tinker to do the job. Zenzie loves historical dress because of the link with the past. ’Working on costumes like the Beetlewing dress gives you a real sense of the people who wore them; you can see the sweat stains and wear marks. But it’s quite unusual to know who actually wore a garment. That’s the thing that makes the Beetlewing project so special .’
Before any of Zenzie’s conservation work can begin, she and her team will conduct a thorough investigation to help determine what changes have been made to the dress and when. This will involve close examination of the dress for signs of damage and wear , and will be aided by comparing it with John Singer Sargent's painting and contemporary photographs. Then and the National Trust will decide how far back to take the reconstruction, as some members feel that even the most recent changes are now part of the history of the dress.
The first stages in the actual restoration will involve delicate surface cleaning, using a small vacuum suction device . Once the level of reconstruction has been determined, the original crocheted 2 overdress will be stitched onto a dyed net support before repairs begin. It’s going to be extraordinarily difficult, because the original doth is quite stretchy, so we’ve deliberately chosen net because that has a certain amount of flexibility in it too ,' says Zenzie. When the dress is displayed, none of our work will be noticeable, but we’ll retain all the evidence on the reverse so that future experts will be able to see exactly what we've done - and I'll produce a detailed report.’
Zenzie has estimated that the project, costing about £30,000, will require more than 700 hours’ work. ‘It will be a huge undertaking and I don’t think the Trust has ever spent quite as much on a costume before,’ she says. ‘But this dress is unique. It's very unusual to see this level of workmanship on a theatrical costume, and it must have looked spectacular on stage.’ If Terry was alive today, there’s no doubt she would be delighted. Unlike many other actresses, she valued her costumes because she kept and reused them time and time again . 'I'd like to think she’d see our contribution as part of the ongoing history of the dress,’ says Zenzie.
1 A conservation organisation whose work includes the funding of projects designed to protect and preserve Britain's cultural heritage
2 Produced using wool and a special needle with a hook at the end
Adapted from Sussex Life magazine
Our human body is made up of many muscles. All these muscles work together to help you move. They form the muscle system. 650 muscles are wrapped around your bones. They basically cover the bones like a blanket. Muscles are fastened to the bones by tough bands. These bands are called tendons. You can see your tendons when you wiggle your finger. Moving your fingers back and forth makes your tendons move.
These muscles around the bone must be told when to move. They are controlled by your thinking. If you want to walk, talk or smile, you send a message to the brain. Your brain picks up the message. It receives it and processes it. Then it sends out an electrical signal through the nerves. The nerves make connections until the signal reaches the proper muscle. This signal tells a muscle what it has to do . The muscle simply does exactly what the brain tells it to do. When you jump, hundreds of muscles work to help you do that.
Muscles work by contracting . They shorten and pull the bone to move the body. They always pull and never push. Muscles work in pairs. One muscle pulls, while the other relaxes. Then they switch around. For instance, when you move your forearm, you use one pair of muscles. The muscles on the inside of your arm is the biceps. It contracts to make you bend your arm . The muscle on the outside is the triceps. It relaxes when you bend your arm. If you want to straighten your arm, the muscles switch roles. The biceps relaxes, whereas the triceps contracts. The biceps and triceps are long and thread-like. The longest muscle, the sartorius, helps you cross your legs. The shortest muscle is in your ear.
However, you cannot control all your muscles. Some muscles work without you thinking about them. This is the case with your heart muscle . Heart muscles are stripped and oval in shape. They are extremely powerful and pump your heart. This pumping motion gets the blood moving through your body. As well, the stomach muscle mixes food around in your stomach. Then it pushes the food through your intestines and into the blood system. Stomach muscles are short and have pointed ends.
Muscles work all the time. They even work when you are fast asleep. They keep your body firm and strong. Therefore, it is important to be in good shape. You need to stay healthy so that your muscles can remain powerful too. One thing that muscles need is good food. Muscles develop when they have protein . Milk, eggs, red meat, fish and beans are rich in protein. A healthy diet includes these food types. Muscles also need to be exercised to remain firm and toned. Regular exercise makes your muscles bigger, strengthens your heart and lungs and makes you more flexible. Good ways to exercise our walking, swimming, cycling, dancing or playing soccer. These activities improve your stamina. If you have good stamina, you can keep going for a long time without getting tired.