|1. oval||14. economist|
|2. blinds||15. dancing|
|3. stones||16. C|
|4. sugar cane||17. B|
|5. steep||18. B|
|6. heat||19. A|
|7. forest||20. A|
|8. status||21. B|
|9. old people||22. C|
|10. pattern||23. A|
|11. Malaysian||24. C|
|12. 13 Anglesea||25. C|
|13. 040 422 9160|
|Level||Band||Listening Score||Reading Score|
Legend: Academic word (?) New word
Last week, we looked at some of the features of modern houses, and today we’re going to turn the clock back and look at traditional house design. I’ve chosen to start with Samoa, which is part of a group of Polynesian islands in the South Pacific Sea, because the influence of culture and weather on house design is quite clear there.
Urn, so let’s have a look at, first of all, at the overall design of a traditional Samoan house Now, these days, houses in Samoa have become more modern and are usually rectangular, but traditional designs were round or sometimes they were oval in shape Flere’s a picture This traditional style is still used - often for guest houses or meeting houses - and most Samoan villages have at least one of these buildings.
As you can see, there are no walls, so the air circulates freely around the house - Samoa is a place that experiences high temperatures but the open design of the house also reflects the openness of Samoan society If the occupants want shelter, there are several blinds made of coconut leaves that can be lowered during rainy or windy weather - or indeed the blinds can also be pulled down if people want some privacy.
The foundations of the house - that’s the part beneath the floor - are raised slightly Urn, in the past, the height was linked to the importance of the occupants, which we’ll talk about another time However, the floor of the house was usually covered with river stones. Today, we have a range of methods for balancing the temperature inside a building, but the stones on the floor of a Samoan home are ideal for cooling the building on holidays.
Now, let’s have a close look at the roof. This, as you can see in the picture, is dome-shaped and traditionally thatched, or covered with leaves from the sugar cane - that’s an established crop in Samoa This was a job for the women, and it involved twisting the leaves and then fastening them with a thin strip of coconut leaf before fixing them to the roof in several layers.
Now, the shape of the roof is important - you can see that the sides are quite steep , and that's done so that the rain falls straight to the ground without moisture going through the leaves and causing leaks or dampness inside the house. Then, you'll notice how high the top of the roof is - this is a way of allowing heat to rise on sunny days and go through the thatching, thereby cooling the house.
So how does the house stay upright’ Well, there are a number of evenly spaced posts inside. They, urn, they encircle the interior of the building and go up to the roof and support the beams there. They’re also buried - er, usually about a metre and a half - in the ground to keep them firm These posts are produced using local timber from the surrounding forests . They're cut by men from the family or village, and the number varies depending on the size and importance of the house
Now, these posts were a very significant part of Samoan culture and did much more than hold up the roof. When there were meetings, people sat with their back to certain posts depending on their status in society. So there were posts for chiefs according to their status and posts for speakers and so on - and ordinary people sat around the side on mats.
The last area I want to look at today is the attachment of the beams and posts - what you call 'fixing’ the construction. Traditionally, no nails or screws were used anywhere in such a building. Instead, coconut fibres were braided into rope to fix the beams and posts together The old people of the village usually made and plaited the rope This was a lengthy process - an ordinary house used about 40,000 feet of this rope - and as you can see in this picture, the rope was pulled very tightly and wound round the beams and posts in a complex pattern . And in fact, the process of tying it to the beams so that it was tight and strong enough to keep them together is one of the great architectural achievements of Polynesia.
Don Hello, come in and take a seat.
Jenny Oh, thanks.
D Good . and how can I help you?
J Well, I'd quite like to join this International Social Club and 1 was hoping you could help me.
D Yes, no problem. Let me just get the form up on my screen and I’ll fill in your details Let’s see yes, here we are OK, the first thing we need is your name.
J Jenny Foo, that’s F-double 0
D OK, great, and can you tell me how old you are, Jenny?
J I'm 21
D Great, and how long have you been here in Australia, by the way?
J I arrived just last month, two weeks before the start of the academic year, just to sort things out and settle in a bit
D Good idea Where are you from originally?
J I'm from Kuala Lumpur - that’s where I was born and brought up.
D So, you're Malaysian ,.are you?
J That's right, though I lived in the United States for a couple of years when I was a teenager - we went there for my father's job.
D Right And can you tell me your current address, please?
J .Sure. Just, at the moment I’m lodging with a family at 13 Anglesea Road in Bondi.
D OK, let me just type that in Er. how do you spell Anglesea, by the way?
J It's spelled A-NUG-L-E-S-E-A
D Thanks. That's quite a long way from the city centre, isn't it? Is it a problem getting into the city centre?
J Not really, because the buses are good, and it's a nice, quiet area to live in
D Mm, that’s true So I guess you must have a cell-phone number you can give me so we can keep you informed of events and so on.
J Yes. Let me just have a took - it’s a new one, so I haven't learned the number yet. Ah, here it is. It’s 040 422 9160 .
D 9160. OK, good. And you like the family you're living with.
J Sure. They've got a little boy, who is quite noisy, but he’s really no trouble.
D Fine. Now, let’s see, what’s next? Er, yep Can you tell me what you do - I mean, are you working or studying?
J Well, at the moment, I'm doing a temporary job with a company here in Sydney - I’m an economist , in fact.
D OK - and how long do you think you'll be here in Sydney?
J At least a year. I may look for work here afterwards.
D Great Now. you want to join the International Social Club and it would be good to know a bit about your free-time interests as well. What do you like doing?
J Well, Km quite musical and I really enjoy singing.
J Back home I sang with a band - just, you know, for fun. But for me, what I like best is dancing . You know, the modern sort? I really love it
Don. So how are you getting on here? I mean, your level of English is better than most people who come from overseas to work arid you’ve got a really nice American accent, so I don't suppose you have any communication problems in the office, though you might find some of our Australian slang more difficult to understand .
Jenny Well, a bit, but I haven't met that many Australians yet - outside of work, I mean.
J But could you tell me a bit about the International Club, now I've joined?
D Sure. We’ve got - er, let’s see - currently about 50 members , but people join all the time, so I should think that figure will go up. Last year, we had 30 members, and the year before just 18, so we’re growing and getting better known. I reckon that.at this rate, next year we'll have about 80.
J And does the club hold regular meetings?
D Yes, every second Thursday evening in fact, so a couple of times a month, though of course when you start making friends, you’ll be getting together with them more often than that, I guess The next meeting will be next Thursday if I'm not mistaken Er, yes, that's right.
J And what happens.when the club meets - I mean, what sort of things are organised?
D The usual thing is for one of the members to give a little presentation about where they're from, their customs and so on, but from time to time they do other things - outings to places around Sydney, or meeting up to eat together in a restaurant or go to a concert together or something like that.
J OK, that sounds fun and the members aren't just people from other countries non-Australians, are they?
D No, not at all. The main point of the club is to give people like you the the chance to mix in more with people from this country , people of all ages - you'll find us very friendly. I think the contact has a positive effect on visitors to this country - and in fact, it affects us locals positively as well- You know, it’s a sort of intercultural experience for everybody And of course you should get the chance to do ail sorts of activities with other members of the club if you want to - it’s not just for talking And hopefully you’ll make friends with people who have similar interests.
J it sounds great. I’m really looking forward to the first meeting
Debbie: Good afternoon My name's Debbie Green.and I’m going to give you a short but hopefully interesting introduction to working at this hospital I’ll start with some guidelines about nutrition and fitness er, because a hospital environment can be stressful, and so we always encourage our staff to stay fit and have a healthy lifestyle So just a few tips first. As you know, the key to good health is eating what we call ’a balanced diet’; many people don’t do this however For one thing, they don’t eat enough fruit and vegetables or home-prepared food. When you feel hungry, it’s often too easy to grab something quick, because you're tired or busy . Cooking a healthy meal takes longer, and this is often why people live on sandwiches and fast food instead Please - don’t fall into this unhealthy trap.
Of course, you have to do a little exercise and keep fit as well, I know you'll have a lot of work and may not have time to join a gym but consider how often you take the lift, father than the stairs, or how often you drive rather than walk Health wise, it may just be a question of doing things differently , rather than starting a very active sport.
In fact, being generally active as much healthier than doing lots of exercise just occasionally. As you know, this can be as risky for your heart as being inactive. As long as you do at least an hour's exercise a day - and some of you will do more than that at work - you'll find that you don’t lie awoke at night worrying about the next day - and that's the main advantage of exercise. Remember - this is a hospital, and you are supposed to be the healthiest people here.
Moving on to health and safety, I want to point out that it’s quite OK to take a break any time that you're not busy. We know that when there's an emergency you may have to miss that cup of tea or coffee in the canteen or wherever you go, but generally you shouldn’t work for more than three hours without a break , otherwise your attention levels will drop and you could then make a careless mistake.
Another important issue is hygiene. You're all trained to clean your hands at work, but remember that germs can live for a long time, so please make sure that you don’t leave even a small amount of rubbish around there are brooms in the cupboards, so use them We do have cleaners, but they aren't always here when you need them, I’m afraid, and a little dirt can soon build up.