|1. D||21. E|
|2. E||22. C|
|3. G||23. A|
|4. B||24. C|
|5. D||25. B|
|6. F||26. A|
|7. A||27. B|
|8. C||28. vi|
|9. G||29. v|
|10. E||30. viii|
|11. natural resource||31. i|
|12. recycling industry||32. iv|
|13. drinkable liquids/ beverages||33. vi|
|14. (real) sand||34. thousands of years|
|15. NOT GIVEN||35. (tree) bark|
|16. FALSE||36. overseas museums|
|17. NOT GIVEN||37. school walls|
|18. TRUE||38. B|
|19. TRUE||39. D|
|20. D||40. C|
|Level||Band||Listening Score||Reading Score|
Legend: Academic word (?) New word
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
Revolution in gloss recycling could help keep water clean
A For the past 100 years special high grade white sand dug from the ground at Leighton Buzzard in the UK. has been used to filter tap water to remove bacteria and impurities but this may no longer be necessary. A new factory that turns used wine bottles into green sand could revolutionise the recycling industry and help to filter Britain’s drinking water. Backed by $1.6m from the European Union and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), a company based in Scotland is building the factory, which will turn beverage bottles back into the sand from which they were made in the first place. The green sand has already been successfully tested by water companies and is being used in 50 swimming pools in Scotland to keep the water clean.
B The idea is not only to avoid using up an increasingly scarce natural resource , sand but also to solve a crisis in the recycling industry . Britain uses 5.5m tonnes of glass a year, but recycles only 750,000 tonnes of it. The problem is that half the green bottle glass in Britain is originally from imported wine and beer bottles. Because there is so much of it, and it is used less in domestic production than other types, green glass is worth only $25 a tonne. Clear glass , which is melted down and used for whisky bottles, mainly for export, is worth double that amount .
C Howard Drvden. a scientist and managing director of the company. Drvden Aqua, of Bonnyrigg, near Edinburgh, has spent six years working on the product he calls Active Filtration Media, or AFM. He concedes that he has given what is basically recycled glass a ‘fancy name' to remove the stigma of what most people would regard as an inferior product . He says he needs bottles that have already contained drinkable liquids to be sure that drinking water filtered through the AFM would not be contaminated. Crushed down beverage glass has fewer impurities than real sand and it performed better in trials. *The fact is that tests show that AFM does the job better than sand, it is easier to clean and reuse and has all sorts of properties that make it ideal for other applications.' he claimed.
D The factory is designed to produce 100 tonnes of AFM a day, although Mr Dryden regards this as a large-scale pilot project rather than full production. Current estimates of the UK market for this glass for filtering drinking water, sewage, industrial water, swimming pools and fish farming are between 175.000 to 217.000 tonnes a year, which w ill use up most of the glass available near the factory. So he intends to build five or six factories in cities where there are large quantities of bottles , in order to cut down on transport costs.
E The current factory will be completed this month and is expected to go into full production on January 14th next year. Once it is providing a ‘regular’ product, the government’s drinking water inspectorate will be asked to perform tests and approve it for widespread use by water companies . A Defra spokesman said it was hoped that AFM could meet approval within six months. The only problem that they could foresee was possible contamination if some glass came from sources other than beverage bottles .
F Among those who have tested the glass already is Caroline Fitzpatrick of the civil and environmental engineering department of University College London. ‘ We have looked at a number of batches and it appears to do the job .' she said. ‘Basically, sand is made of glass and Mr Dryden is turning bottles back into sand. It seems a straightforward idea and there is no reason we can think of why it would not work. Since glass from wine bottles and other beverages has no impurities and clearly did not leach any substances into the contents of the bottles, there was no reason to believe there would be a problem,’ Dr Fitzpatrick added.
G Mr Dryden has set up a network of agents round the world to sell AFM . It is already in use in central America to filter water on banana plantations where the fruit has to he washed before being despatched to European markets. It is also in use in sewage works to filter water before it is returned to rivers, something which is becoming legally necessary across the European Union because of tighter regulations on sewage works. So there are a great number of applications involving cleaning up water. Currently, however, AFM costs $670 a tonne, about four times as much as good quality sand. ‘Hut that is because we haven't got large-scale production. Obviously, when we get going it will cost a lot less, and be competitive with sand in price as well.’ Mr Dryden said. ‘I believe it performs better and lasts longer than sand, so it is going to be better value too.'
H If AFM takes off as a product it will be a big boost for the government agency which is charged with finding a market for recycled products. Crushed glass is already being used in road surfacing and in making tiles and bricks. Similarly. AFM could prove to have a widespread use and give green glass a cash value.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.
What's the connection between your morning coffee, wintering North American birds and the cool shade of a tree? Actually, unite a lot, says Simon Birch.
When scientists from London’s Natural History Museum descended on the coffee farms of the tiny Central American republic of F.l Salvador, they were astonished to find such diversity of insect and plant species. During 18 months' work on 12 farms, they found a third more species of parasitic wasp than arc known to exist in the whole country of Costa Rica. They described four new species and are aware of a fifth. On 24 farms they found nearly 300 species of tree when they had expected to find about 100.
El Salvador has lost much of its natural forest, with coffee farms covering nearly 10% of the country. Most of them use the ‘shade-grown’ method of production, which utilises a semi-natural forest ecosystem. Alex Munro, the museum’s botanist on the expedition, says: ‘Our findings amazed our insect specialist. There’s a very sophisticated food web present. The wasps, for instance, may depend on specific species of tree.’
It's the same the world over. Species diversity is much higher where coffee is grown in shade conditions . In addition, coffee (and chocolate) is usually grow n in tropical rainforest regions that are biodiversity hotspots. ‘These habitats support up to 70% of the planets plant and animal species , and so the production methods of cocoa and coffee can have a hugely significant impact,' explains Dr Paul Donald of the Royal Society for the. Protection of Birds.
So what does ‘shade-grown’ mean, and why is it good for wildlife? Most of the world's coffee is produced by poor farmers in the developing world. Traditionally they have grown coffee (and cocoa) under the shade of selectively thinned tracts of rain forest in a genuinely sustainable form of farming. Leaf fall from the canopy provides a supply of nutrients and acts as a mulch that suppresses weeds. The insects that live in the canopy pollinate the cocoa and coffee and prey on pests. The trees also provide farmers with fruit and wood for fuel. <-- Q24
Bird diversity in shade-grown coffee plantations rivals that found in natural forests in the same region.’ says Robert Rice from the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. In Ghana, West Africa . - one of the world's biggest producers of cocoa - 90% of the cocoa is grown under shade, and these forest plantations are a vital habitat for wintering European migrant birds. In the same way. the coffee forests of Central and South America are a refuge for wintering North American migrants .
More recently, a combination of the collapse in the world market for coffee and cocoa and a drive to increase yields by producer countries has led to huge swathes of shade-grown coffee and cocoa being cleared to make way for a highly intensive, monoculture pattern of production known as ‘full sun’. But this system not only reduces the diversity of flora and fauna , it also requires huge amounts of pesticides and fertilisers . In Cote d’Ivoire, which produces more than half the world's cocoa, more than a third of the crop is now grown in full-sun conditions. <-- Q24
The loggers have been busy in the Americas too, where nearly 70% of all Colombian coffee is now produced using full-sun production. One study carried out in Colombia and Mexico found that, compared with shade coffee, full-sun plantations have 95% fewer species of birds.
In LI Salvador. Alex Munro says shade-coffee farms have a cultural as well as ecological significance and people are not happy to see them go. But the financial pressures are great, and few of these coffee farms make much money . ‘One farm we studied, a cooperative of 100 families, made just S 10,000 a year S100 per family and that's not taking labour costs into account.’
The loss of shade-coffee forests has so alarmed a number of North American wildlife organisations that they 're now harnessing consumer power to help save these threatened habitats. They are promoting a ‘certification' system that can indicate to consumers that the beans have been grown on shade plantations . Bird-friendly coffee, for instance, is marketed by the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. The idea is that the small extra cost is passed directly on to the coffee farmers as a financial incentive to maintain their shade-coffee farms.
Not all conservationists agree with such measures, however. Some say certification could be leading to the loss not preservation of natural forests. John Rappole of the Smithsonian Conservation and Research Center, for example, argues that shade- grown marketing provides ‘an incentive to convert existing areas of primary forest that are too remote or steep to be converted profitably to other forms of cultivation into shade-coffee plantations’ .
Other conservationists, such as Stacey Philpott and colleagues, argue the case for shade coffee. But there are different types of shade growing. Those used by subsistence farmers are virtually identical to natural forest (and have a corresponding diversity), while systems that use coffee plants as the understorey and cacao or citrus trees as the overstorey may be no more diverse than full-sun farms. Certification procedures need to distinguish between the two. and Ms Philpott argues that as long as the process is rigorous and offers financial gains to the producers, shade growing does benefit the environment .
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.