|1. B||21. northwest|
|2. A||22. spray|
|3. C||23. (a) (small) library|
|4. B||24. mountains|
|5. A||25. field observation|
|6. A||26. development|
|7. B||27. water|
|8. B, D, G in any order||28. market town|
|9. B, D, G in any order||29. national park|
|10. B, D, G in any order||30. dissertation|
|11. June 6th||31. requirements|
|12. 5000||32. private|
|13. transportation||33. attitudes|
|14. low levels||34. interviews|
|15. Commuter||35. B|
|16. plant trees||36. C|
|17. upgrade||37. B|
|18. border||38. B|
|19. clean(er) fuels||39. A|
|20. factories||40. C|
|Level||Band||Listening Score||Reading Score|
Legend: Academic word (?) New word
Woman: Hmm .. I'm interested in doing some work for the library - are you the person to speak to?
Librarian: Yes Right, well, erm, what sort of work are you interested in?
Woman: I've just come to live here in Australia I don't want a full-time job until my children have settled down, but t really need to get out of the house a bit, and l heard you need voluntary workers for various projects...
Woman: but I don't know if I have the right skills.
Librarian: Well, we do provide training
Librarian: We always include an orientation to the library, together with emergency procedures, that's fire regulations, emergency exits, first aid. So you can cope with accidents or sudden illness , things like that which are necessary for anyone who’s working with the public. Then we give specialist training for particular projects - like using our database system.
Woman: I do have quite good computer skills, in fact.
Librarian: Umm Great!
Woman: Is there any sort of dress requirement?
Librarian: Well, all staff have to wear a name badge so they can be identified if they go outside the ’staff only' areas. But apart from that there aren't many regulations - we ask you to sign in and sign out for insurance purposes, but that's all. How about transport do you live locally?
Woman: Not too far away I'm at Porpoise Beach. My husband needs the car during the day but it's only about twenty minutes on the bus.
Librarian: In fact, we can reimburse part of your travel expenses in that case .
Woman: Oh Would that be the same if I came by car?
Librarian: No, because parking is such a problem here. One thing we are looking for though is someone who can drive a minibus.
Woman: No problem So. do the projects involve going outside the library?
Librarian: Some, yes. But not all. We’ve just finished one which involved working with photographs taken of the area 50 or 100 years ago it basically involved what we call encapsulation ..
Woman: Putting them in some sort of covers to keep them safe ?
Librarian: Exactly, it’s time-consuming work, and we were very grateful to have help with it. Then, sometime next year we're hoping to begin working on an initiative involving the sorting and labelling of objects relating to local history. We'll be needing help with the cataloguing.
Woman: I'd definitely be interested. How about at present?
Librarian: Well, we have a small team who work to support those who are unable to read.
Woman: Working with the blind.
Librarian: Yes, or other groups who have reading difficulties. We provide volunteers with equipment so that they can take books home with them and read them aloud onto CDs . We're gradually building up a collection that can be lent to those who need them
Woman: Mmm. I can see it would be useful, but I'd really like to do some sort of work where I can get the chance to meet people. How about reading stories to children?
Librarian: Mmm. That's done by our regular staff. But we do have another project - it's a very long established scheme which involves helping those who are unable to have direct access to the library.
Woman: Oh. I noticed someone with a trolley of books when i was at the hospital last week. That sort of thing?
Librarian: That would have been one of ours, yes. It’s one of our most popular services - lots of people who wouldn't dream of going to the library normally, when they're at home, borrow a book when the trolley comes round the ward.
Woman: I can imagine. Yes, I'd definitely be interested in that. Right, so how do I enroll?
Librarian: Well, we do ask all volunteers to commit themselves to a regular period each week.
Woman: I could probably do five or six hours.
Librarian: Oh ... be careful not to take on too much - but we do need someone for a couple of afternoons from 2 to 4 ... so four hours altogether .
Woman: That sounds fine.
Librarian: Right, so here's the application form . .. it asks the usual questions, name and address and telephone number. You also need to fill in details of who we should get in touch with in case of any accident or problem like that , we do need to have that filled in, and there's a space for date of birth, but that’s only if you're over 75 so. we won't worry about that.
Woman: No. Oh. it asks for qualifications do I need to provide certificates?
Librarian: They're not necessary. We'll need the names of two referees not relatives or family members, obviously. What else . . signature of parent or guardian - that won't be necessary as i assume you're over 18?
Woman: Yes. What's this? it says 'civil conviction check'
Librarian: That's a document we have to provide by law for those working on projects involving children, so we’ won’t need it in your case But you will need to sign this separate document that’s a copy of commitment , it's basically an agreement to work according to the library guidelines. So if you'd like to fill this all in - you can do it here, or take it home, whichever you prefer.
Woman: I'll take it home if that’s OK. Right, well thank you for your time ...
Good morning, folks, and welcome to the Information Round-up on your own local radio station. This is Larry Knowles talking to you this morning or Tuesday 25th May .. and the first term coming up is a reminder to you all out there about Canadian Clean Air Day - which is on June 6th .
In case you weren't around for the last one, this is a chance for Canadians everywhere to focus on the problems of air pollution and to actually try to do something to help reduce the problem.
How many Canadians do you think die annually because of air pollution? 2000? 3000? Well, the rate is a staggering 5000 and, it's likely to grow - unless we do something. And, it's this concern with your health that's the driving force behind the government campaign that is sponsoring Clean Air Day.
So what causes air pollution in the first place? Well, the transportation sector accounts for 27 percent of all greenhouse gases produced in Canada. It’s also the biggest source of that thick, polluted air tram traffic fumes that we call smog. And it's the tiny particles and ground-level ozone in smog that are the main causes of health problems, and even deaths, across the country. Of course, it's worse in the big cities ... but researchers have only recently realised that all you need are low levels of air pollution to seriously damage your health, so we're all at risk.
So. what can we do to fight air pollution? Well, it should be pretty obvious by now that the way we get to and from work every day can have a big impact on the air we breathe. So the easiest action you can take on Clean Air Day is to accept what we call the ‘ Commuter Challenge' and get to work on foot or by cycling for a change. If you have to use your car, try 'car pooling' and share the drive, or better still, use public transit. If everyone tries this for just one day, you'll be amazed by the difference it can make to the air in our towns and cities.
But, there's more you can do to improve air quality. For example, you can plant trees . And if you don't have a garden, then you can do your bit in other ways. For instance, did you know that modern, improved wood stoves can reduce wood smoke by as much as 80-90 percent? So you can make a big difference if you upgrade the appliances you use in your home.
The government is also working hard on your behalf to clean up our air. Its priority is to reduce the emissions that cause smog and they have dear plans to get there. Last year, Canada and the United States agreed to reduce emissions on both sides of the border between the two countries and they plan to reach their targets in the next few years.
The government's also taking action to get cleaner fuels , it's already reduced the sulphur contained in gasoline, and it hopes to reach the reduction target for sulphur in diesel by next year. But the measures don't just focus on the motorist - the federal government's also working to reduce emissions from power plants and factories right across the provinces.
You can find out all about government action and all the plans for Clean Air Day events.
Jack: Katy, hi. Thanks for inviting me round.
Katy: Thanks for coming know you're up to your neck in finals revision, but I've got to make up my mind about next year's Geography field trip and I'd really like your advice. We've got to choose between an African trip and one in Europe. They've told us a bit about both trips in the lecture but I really can't make up my mind, and I know you did the African one last year.
Jack: That's right.
Katy: So, where exactly did you go? I mean. I know it was in Kenya, in East Africa ...
Jack: Yes, well, we were right up in the north-west of the country. It was beautiful. We stayed in a place called the Marich Pass Field Studies Centre.
Katy: Right. Dr Rowe said the accommodation was traditional African-style cottages. er. he had a special name for them ..
Jack: Bandas. Yes, they're fine. You have to share two or three people together. They're pretty basic but you have a mosquito net. They don't provide spray though so remember to take plenty with you - you'll need it. And there's no electricity in the Field Centre - you’ll have hurricane lamps instead They give a good light, it's no problem.
Katy: What about places to study? Dr Rowe said there was a library ...
Jack: Yes. but it’s quite small. There's a lecture room as well - but most of us worked out in the open air, there are plenty of places outside. And it's so beautiful - you're right in the middle of the forest clearing
Katy: I gather it's a relatively unmodernised area?
Jack: Definitely. They actually set up the centre there because it's on the boundaries of two distinct ecological zones the mountains , where the people are mainly agriculturalists, and the semi-arid plains lower down, where they're semi nomadic pastoralists.
Katy: So, how much chance did you get to meet the local people there? Did you get die chance to do interviews?
Jack: Yes though we had to use local interpreters. But that was OK. Then we did field observation , of course, looking at environmental and cultural conditions, and morphological mapping.
Katy: What's that?
Jack: Oh. Looking at the surface forms of the landscape, the slope elements and so on.
Katy: What about specific projects?
Jack: Yes. After the first two or three days, we spent most of our time on those. We could pretty well do what we wanted, although they all had to relate to issues concerned with development in some way. People did various things .. some were based on social and cultural topics, like the effect of education on the aspirations of young people, and some did more physical process-based studies, looking at things like soil erosion. My group actually looked at issues relating to water , things like sources such as rivers and wells, and quality and so on. It was a good project to work on, but, a bit frustrating - we felt we needed a lot more time really.
Katy: Right. Dr Rowe did say something about limiting project scope.
Jack: Yes, he told us that too at the beginning and I can see why now. What else ... well, we had some good trips out as part of the course. We went to a market town a place called Sigor - that was to study distribution and to look at agricultural production we went to the Wei Wei valley, that's an important agricultural region.
Katy: And what about animals? Did you have a chance to go to a national park ?
Jack: Sure, we did a top on the last day, on the way back to the airport at Nairobi. But actually there was lots of wildlife at the Field Centre vervet monkeys and baboons and lizards ..
Katy: Mmm. It does sound good.
Jack: It was excellent, I‘d say. In terms of logistics it was very well run, but it was more than that I mean, it's not the sort of place I‘d ever have got to on my own, and it was a real eye-opener - it got me really interested in development issues and the way other people live. I did find it frustrating at the time that we couldn't get as far as we wanted on the project, but actually I'm going to follow it up in my dissertation , so it's given me some ideas and data for that as well.
Katy: So you'd say it was worth the extra money?
For my website design project, I decided lo approach Supersave supermarkets, because I have an evening job at the supermarket, so I already have a slight insight into their organisational goals and workings.
The field research for my project was in two stages.
First, I had an interview with Mr Dunne, who is in charge of Supersave's customer care department. I discussed the project with him in order to identify the supermarket's requirements . Mr Dunne said customers are often unwilling to make a face-to-face complaint when they've experienced difficulties with a product, or a member of staff, or anything related to the supermarket. So he said a website which allowed members of the public to get in touch with the organisation and bring the problem to their attention in a private manner might be very useful, and we agreed that I’d work on this.
For the second stage of my research, I devised a questionnaire to put to Supersave customers. I needed to find out about the customers' experiences of problems, together with their attitudes towards making complaints, both directly and indirectly. I used a mixture of closed questions such as 'Have you ever experienced a problem at any Supersave store?' and open questions such as 'What would you find helpful about a customer complaint website?’
I decided to do interviews rather than rely on distribution of the questionnaire, as I felt this was likely to lead to a higher take-up rate. I visited four Supersave stores, two in the city centre and two in the outskirts and altogether I interviewed 101 respondents. Then finally, I analysed the results.
I found the results of the questionnaires to be very informative. I found that out of the total number of customers investigated, 64 percent had at some stage encountered a problem in a Supersave Store . Out of these people, the vast majority said that they hadn’t reported the problem to any member of staff they’d just kept it to themselves. The next thing I tried to find out was why they hadn't complained. Well, about 25 percent of the people I interviewed said the reason was that they couldn't be bothered, and a slightly smaller percentage said they didn't have enough time, but 55 percent said the reason was that they felt intimidated . I finally asked if they would be more likely to complain if they didn't have to do it face-to-face, and nearly everyone I asked said that they would - 95 percent, to be exact.
I then set about designing the website to meet these needs. Once l'd completed the website, I made another appointment with Mr Dunne, to find out what he thought of it.
Mr Dunne said he felt that the pages would benefit his organisation by giving customers a new way of expressing their complaints, and by making it easier to collect complaints, identify specific places where service and customer care were not as good as they should be , and act upon them accordingly. Supersave is already a highly customer-orientated organisation and he thought our website would be an excellent addition to their customer care effort.
This is all well and good but there still remains the general problem with websites, that there's a lack of access to on-line computers. Surprisingly, in my survey I found that 88 percent of those interviewed had access to the Internet, which I felt was quite high. But this access wasn't always direct for some people it was through their children and grandchildren and neighbours and so on, rather than being readily available in their own homes . This could prove to be a major drawback to the site, but it is still better to have it now to yet the edge over competitors, however slight, and ii the very near future it is expected that almost everyone will have direct access to the Internet.
Another thing to consider is that at the moment I can only base our conclusions on data gathered from a tiny fraction of the supermarket's customer base . In order to get a better idea of how the site is doing and to see how well l have met my objectives, the site will need to have been up and running for at least a few months. After this time, I’ll be possible to see whether or not people are actually using the site, and if it’s helping to make improvements to their customer service.
It would also be interesting to study the effect of the site on staff at the supermarket. Morale could be dented, as more complaints come in. Staff may feel they are being unfairly criticised and that there is no need for another way for customers to complain. But also, the site could boost morale by making staff come together to overcome the constructive criticism , and they may gain more job satisfaction by knowing that they are making a difference to the customer.
So, overall, l feel my website has met my objectives, but there is scope for improvement and expansion. Are there any questions?